difference between forging and casting

Difference between Forging and Casting

Metal components and products are produced using a variety of methods. Cutting, folding, welding, machining, punching, stamping, shearing, casting, and forging are all part of the metal fabrication process. While many of them alter the alloy’s shape, only casting and forging alter the metal’s shape at the inner level, enabling a more profound alteration.

Metal-based products make up the majority of the many conveniences we utilize on a daily basis in almost every manmade environment. We depend on the producers and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) suppliers who develop the components that, when combined into finished goods, create the world we live in, from lamps and kitchen appliances to cars and skyscrapers.

It is quite obvious there is a difference between forging and casting operations. They are both important processes in the manufacturing world. These two processes are used to make machinery, tools, objects of various shapes, etc.. Forging and casting are both done in manufacturing industries but have differences.

difference between forging and casting

Well, in this article, you’ll get to know the difference between forging and casting processes and their various applications and benefits.

Read more: Different Types of Die Casting and their applications



Casting is a process of heating metals to liquid/melt and pouring the molten metal into a cavity in order to take the shape of the cavity in every detail so as to produce an article called casting. It is a very old process of producing any materials with the desired shape. It has been in existence since 6000 years ago. Castings are used to produce complex shapes that cannot be easily manufactured by other manufacturing processes.

The size of the world market for metal casting in 2018 was estimated at $123.8 billion. From 2019 to 2025, this value is projected to increase at a CAGR of 5.3 percent. The automotive industry, which is expected to fuel this market expansion over the next six years, contributes to the rising demand.

Aluminum is the metal that is leading this surge in metals, not just because it is less expensive than steel but also because it makes more lightweight cars that consume less fuel. The strict rules governing car emissions and energy efficiency have contributed to the expansion of the casting industry: Due to the complexity of the components, casting is one of the main methods used to make automobile components.

Casting is also used to make complex parts of any machine, they are done in automobile industries, railways, aeroscopes, shipping, etc. For producing different parts. Casting is used in the electrical aspect of producing items like motors, generators, pumps, compressors, etc. Casting operations are also performed in hardware industries where the production of plumbing pipes, joints, fittings, valves, etc. There are still a lot of items produced with casting. In fact, almost 90% of metal items are produced with casting.

Read more: What are the types of casting processes?

There are various casting variations. Die-casting is the process of forcing liquid metal into a die rather than a mold, where the pressure retains the metal in place as it solidifies. The fast applications that this approach provides are its main selling point. Pouring molten metal into a metal mold using gravity or a vacuum to fill it is known as permanent mold casting. Die casting can provide castings that are stronger than those made using permanent molds, but they might be more challenging to remove from the finished product. Semi-permanent mold castings are also offered as a result. These molds’ replaceable cores make them easier to handle and less expensive to remove.

Sand casting is another casting technique. It involves pressing a pattern into a fine sand mixture to create casts. This creates a mold into which the molten metal can be poured. Despite being slow, this casting method is typically more affordable. Additionally, it works well for large metal production projects or when elaborate patterns are required. Below are some common benefits of casting:

  • Complex components
  • Flexible quantities
  • Strength and quality
  • Minimized labor Low cost

Difference between forging and casting Read: Working Principles of Investment Casting

watch the video below to learn how casting is done:


This is a manufacturing process in which metals are heated to some extent and compressed using external agencies like, hammers, rolls, presses, or upsetting machines to obtain a specific shape. Forging is used for different purposes and for specific reasons. It is used when an object needs greater strength, high tensile strength, a high degree of surface finish, greater productivity, more reliability, greater dimensional accuracy, greater fatigue strength, etc. Forging operations are also used when the less complex object is needed and the object with less weight. Forging is commonly used in a project like a piece of railroad equipment, small tools, automobile tools, parts, aviation industries, etc.

Metal is shaped by forging using compressive force. The metal workpiece is struck with a hammer or die until the required shape is created. Forging deforms and molds the metal by pounding it; this creates an uninterrupted grain flow, which keeps the metal’s strength. This particular grain flow has additional benefits, such as removing product flaws, inclusions, and porosity. The relatively cheap costs associated with moderate and lengthy manufacturing runs are another benefit of forging. Once the forging tools have been developed, goods may be produced with little downtime and at relatively high speeds.

Cold forging is the process of forging metal that is at room temperature. Warm forging, which involves heating the metal to a temperature above room temperature and below the recrystallization temperature, is another method of forging. The procedure is known as hot forging when the metal is heated to its recrystallization temperature, which varies by metal. One of the earliest forms of manufacturing is forging, which was first used by blacksmiths thousands of years ago.

The market for metal forging was valued at $1.08 billion in 2018 and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 2.1 percent from 2019 to 2025. The oil and gas sector, which necessitates high overall strength and fatigue strength in components and products, is one of the major factors driving the market growth. Ball valves, electric motors, turbines, wellhead equipment, pumps, and other metal parts are among them.

Manufacturers choose to forge for components and products that require significant strength. With this comes higher initial costs, secondary finishing processes required by hot forging, and limits to the complexity of the shapes. Below are some common benefits of forging:

  • Stronger products
    Higher fatigue strength
    Low operating cost
    Variety of shapes accomplished

Difference between forging and casting

Read more: Understanding evaporative pattern casting

Difference between forging and casting

Here are some specific differences between forging and casting:

The metal material is heated until it completely melts in the casting process while in forging operations the metal is heated below its recrystallization temperature. Casting has high compressive strength when compared with forging. One of the differences between forging and casting is that the Fatigue strength of casting is less while fatigue strength in forging products is high. The imperfection or directional defect improves in forging while in casting it sometimes deteriorates due to little mistakes.

Read more: Understanding investment casting

Items produced with forging operations are more reliable as compared with items produced with casting. Another great difference between forging and casting is that forging provides greater tensile strength to the object than casting.

watch the video below to learn how forging is done:

Forging is less tedious as compared with casting. Forging doesn’t require secondary finishing but in casting secondary finishing is required to get the desired dimension. A forged object is more accurate than casting. Forging gives greater productivity than casting. In forging, fewer materials are wasted as it requires no secondary finishing but in casting wastage of material is more as secondary finishing is required.

Read more: Different Types of Die Casting and their applications

A high degree of surface finish is obtained in forging but not so in casting The cost of materials and production time is less in forging but in casting operations, the cost and production time are much. That is all for this article, the difference between forging and casting. I hope you enjoyed the reading, if so, kindly comment and share with other students. Thanks for reading, see you next time!


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