Modern industrial processes rely heavily on sheet metal forming techniques, which allow flat metal sheets to be transformed into intricate three-dimensional structures. To deform and manipulate sheet metal into desired forms, sizes, and configurations, these procedures include the use of a variety of techniques, tools, and machinery. Among other industries, sheet metal forming is essential to the automotive, aerospace, construction, and appliance manufacturing sectors. The fundamental goal of sheet metal forming procedures is to give the metal sheets particular geometrical modifications while preserving their structural integrity.

These procedures include a variety of methods, such as bending, stretching, deep drawing, shearing, punching, and more. Each operation uses a separate mechanism to change the sheet metal’s shape, frequently making use of specialist equipment including dies, punches, press brakes, and rollers.

Sheet metal embossing is a stamping technique that creates raised or sunken images in sheet metal. This procedure can be accomplished using matched male and female roller dies, or by sliding a sheet or a strip of metal between the desired pattern’s rolls. It’s frequently used in conjunction with foil stamping to create a gleaming, three-dimensional impression. Depending on the sort of embossing required, metal sheet embossing is generally achieved using a combination of heat and pressure on the sheet metal. The metal thickness is modified in its composition, in theory, using any of these processes. Well, In this article, you’ll learn the various types of sheet metal operations with their diagrams.

Types of sheet metal operations with the aid of diagram

Read more: Different types of sheet metal forming processes


Types of sheet metal operations

The common types of sheet metal operations are shearing, blanking, punching, piercing, trimming, drawing, embossing, bending, and squeezing operations.

Shearing Operations

The Shearing operation is cut in a straight line across a strip, sheet, or bar. It leaves a lean edge on the piece of metal that is sheared or cut. In this operation, a sheet metal workpiece is placed or kept between two dies from one end. And, the punch is hit at the other end of the sheet, producing a shearing effect. This type of sheet metal operation has three basic stages:

shearing operation

Read more: Different types of sheet metals work tools

Blanking Operations

It is the process of cutting a complete piece of sheet metal. In which there is ample junk all around, as shown in fig. For this type of sheet metal operation, a punch and die are used.

Punching Operations

A punch-and-die technique is used to create circular holes in a sheet of metal. Although this is the polar opposite of blanking, the process is essentially identical. Blanking processes, for example, require the employment of a punch and die.

blanking and punching

Piercing Operations

As indicated in the figure, piercing is the process of creating desired shape holes in a piece of sheet metal without taking any material from the sheet or removing a very little quantity of material. In this operation, both punch and die are used. Bullet-shaped punches are commonly employed in piercing operations.

piercing operation

Read more: Understanding sheet metals

Trimming Operations

The shaving operation is another name for trimming. It is a finishing technique that involves removing burrs from cut edges in order to smooth them down and improve dimensional accuracy.


Drawing Operations

It is the process of fabricating thin-walled hollows or vessel-shaped pieces out of sheet metal. It can be classified into two groups:

Deep drawing – the object to be drawn has a depth that is greater than its breadth.

Shallow drawing – the item to be drawn has a length that is less than its width. Pans, tubes, and cams are instances of drawing.


Embossing Operations

It’s a metalworking technique for creating raised surfaces or letters in sheet metal. During this operation, the thickness of the metal does not change.


Read more: The operations performed on milling machine

Bending Operations

When forces are applied to certain regions, this happens. With the inner surface under compression and the outer surface in tension, the metal flow is uniform along the bend axis. The following are the various types of sheet metal bending operations:

Edge bending

As indicated in the diagram, it is a type of bending operation in which a piece of sheet metal is fixed or held between two dies from one end. The other end is thus compelled to strike the free or unfixed punch. To complete the shaping process, the sheet metal piece’s free or unfixed edge is bent.

edge bending


When a piece of sheet metal is squeezed between the die and the punch in this type of bending operation, it is shaped into a V-shape in the die.

v bending

Read more: Understanding the common types of metal, their properties & uses


The sheet metal component is shaped into a U-shape in this type of bending operation, in which the punch is forced into the die by a force.

U bending

Offset bending

It is a type of bending operation in which a piece of sheet metal is punched and die-formed into an offset shape.

offset bending

Channel bending

When a force is applied to the punch to advance it into the die, the sheet metal piece in between the punch and die takes on the shape of the die and punch, i.e. a channel shape.

channel bending

Squeezing Operations

It is a simple and common method of producing ductile metals. It can perform a variety of tasks, including sizing, coining, and riveting.

Sizing – the sizing technique decreases the thickness of the metal by squeezing it. Only the surface where the die and the workpiece come into contact is sized in an open die.

Coining – It’s the process of pressing metal into a die and allowing it to flow into the die space. Medals, coins, and jewelry, for example.


Read more: Understanding powder metallurgy

The Table below shows sheet metal operation depending on the type of stress-induced

SI.No. Stress-Induced Operations
1. Shear Shearing, Blanking, Piercing, and Trimming
2. Tension Stretch forming
3. Compression Coining and Sizing etc
4. Tension and Compression Drawing, Bending, Forming, etc

watch the video below to learn how these sheet metal operations are performed:


In conclusion, there are a variety of methods utilized in sheet metal forming procedures to convert flat metal sheets into intricate three-dimensional components. It takes careful planning, tool design, and process optimization to attain desired forms and maintain product quality in these procedures, which are essential to many different sectors.

Numerous benefits, including affordability, rapid production rates, dimensional precision, and the capacity to create complex and lightweight components, are provided by sheet metal forming operations. They do, however, also come with some difficulties, such as material spring back, wrinkling, ripping, and thinning.

Manufacturers must carefully take into account a number of variables, such as material qualities, sheet thickness, lubrication, tooling design, and process parameters, in order to meet these challenges and guarantee the best outcomes. Engineers are now better able to forecast and simulate the behavior of sheet metal during forming thanks to computer-aided design (CAD) and simulation tools.

That is all for this article, where the common types of sheet metal operations are been discussed. I hope you get a lot from the reading, if so, kindly share with other students. Thanks for reading, see you around!