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Understanding a direct-injection system

Just like the indirect injection system, direct injection is a method in which fuel is introduced into internal combustion engines. it’s common in gasoline (petrol) engines but is now employ on diesel engines to give the same quality to the engine types.

Direct injection systems are used in a gasoline engine to increase the efficiency and specific power output and also to reduce exhaust emissions.

Today you’ll get to know about direct injection definition, functions, diagram, working, components. you’ll also get to its advantages and disadvantages.

direct injection system

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What is a direct injection system?

A direct injection system is a fuel injection process that allows fuel to be injected directly to the top of the piston in the combustion chamber. A gasoline direct injection (GDI) which is also known as petrol direct injection (PDI) is a mixture formation system for internal combustion engines that work with gasoline (petrol). Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber directly.

This direct gasoline engine was introduced in 1925 for a low-compression truck engine. it was quite popular on German cars, using a Bosch mechanical GDI system in the 1950s. it became more popular when introduced in an electronic GDI system in 1996 by Mitsubishi. However, the system has been widely adopted by the automotive industry in recent years.

The direct injection principle is firstly performed on diesel engines. it’s a basic type of fuel injection system diesel engine uses. Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber above the piston directly in a simple DI diesel engine. The compression of air inside the chamber rises in temperature above 400 degrees Celsius, which then ignites the diesel-fuel immediately it’s sprayed directly into the combustion chamber.

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Functions of a direct injection system

Below are the functions of a direct injection system in automotive engines

  • To burn fuel efficiently
  • To produce more power
  • Cleaner emissions, and
  • Increased fuel economy.

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Components of a direct injection system

Below are the components of a direct injection fuel system:

  • Injectors
  • Fuel injection pump
  • High-pressure lines
  • Fuel feed pump
  • Fuel filter
  • Governor

Diagram of a direct injection:

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components of direct injection system

Working principle

The working of a direct injection system is less complex and can be easily understood. Conventionally, gasoline engines work by sucking a mixture of gasoline and air into the cylinder. This mixture is compressed with a piston and then ignite with a spark from a spark plug to cause an explosion. This resulting explosion moves the piston downwards, producing power.

Traditionally, in an indirect fuel injection system, gasoline and air is pre-mix in a chamber outside the cylinder known as the intake manifold. Now in a direct injection system, air and gasoline are not pre-mixed. Instead, the air enters through the intake manifold, while the gasoline is injected directly into the cylinder.

In the combustion chamber, there is a way fuel is distributed into it, which is known as “charge mode”. This charge includes homogeneous charge mode and stratified charge mode. In the homogeneous charge mode, the fuel is mixed evenly with the air throughout the combustion chamber due to the manifold injection. Whereas in the stratified charge mode, there is a zone with a higher density of fuel around the spark plug, and a leaner mixture (lower density of fuel) is far away from the spark plug.

In a direct injection system, there are common techniques for creating a desired fuel distribution throughout the combustion chamber. These injection methods include spray-guided, air-guided, or wall-guided injection.

Watch the video to understand how a direct injection system works:

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Advantages and disadvantages of a direct-injection system

Advantages:

Below are the benefits of direct injection in gasoline engines:

  • Low maintenance
  • High low-end torque
  • Sturdiness
  • Longer engine life

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Disadvantages:

Despite the advantages of direct-inject some limitations still occur. below are the disadvantages of direct injection in gasoline engine:

  • Lower engine speeds and BHP
  • Working is Sluggish
  • Higher noise, vibrations, and harshness levels
  • Heavier engine components
  • No valve cleaning action
  • Producing peak power at high engine speed is limited

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In conclusion, a direct injection system is also a great way of injecting fuel into gasoline internal combustion engines. in this article, we’ve covered the definition, functions, component, and working of the direct injection system. its advantages and disadvantages were also stated.

I hope you enjoyed the reading, if so, comment, share, and recommend this site to other technical students. Thanks!

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