# What is Electric Charge? – its Formula, & Properties

Electric charge is a fundamental concept in physics. It is the basic property of matter carried by some elementary particles that are affected by an electric or magnetic field. Electric charge can be positive or negative and occur in discrete natural units, neither created nor destroyed.

There are two general types of electric charge: positive and negative. When two objects have an excess of one kind of charge, they exert a force of repulsion on each other when relatively close together. But, when two objects have excess opposite charges, one positively charged and the other negatively charged, they attract each other when relatively near.

Now, let’s go deep to explain what an electric charge is, its formula, properties, examples, types, and methods of charging!

Contents

## What is an Electric Charge?

Electric charge is the amount of element or energy that passes from one energy to another. It uses different modes like conduction, induction, triboelectricity, etc. Generally, electric charges are of two types; positive and negative charges. These charges are presented in almost all types of bodies.

When two bodies have an excess of one type of this charge, it exerts a force of repulsion on each other when relatively close to each other. But when two bodies with excessive opposite charges, that is, one with a positive charge and the other with a negative charge, they attract each other.

Most subatomic particles of matter have properties of electric charge e.g. protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge, but neutrons have zero charges, that is, all those bodies having no charge are naturally uncharged ones. Just a coulomb’s law had explained, electric charges attract or repel each other because they exact forces on each other.

Simply put, an electric charge can be defined as a fundamental property of subatomic particles that gives rise to the phenomenon of experiencing force in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. These fields exert influence on charged particles, resulting in observable effects.

## Electric Charge Formula

The formula for calculating electric charge is Q = I.T

Where; Q is the electric charge

I represent the electric current

T represents time

The corresponding S.I unit is; coulomb’s (C) = ampere (A). the second (S)

## Properties of Electric Charge

Below are the properties of an electric charge:

### A charge is additive in nature

A charge is additive in nature means that electric charges act like scalars and they can be added directly. For example, a system consisting of two charges namely x1 and x2. The total charge will the sum of x1 and x2, that is x1 + x2.

### Quantization of charge

Charge be a conserved quantity should remind you of the law of conservation mass. It means that charge can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transferred from one body to another by conduction and induction method. i.e. transfer of electrons occurs from one body to another when the two body are robbing each other.

For example, when 6c is a total charge of a system, then it can be redistributed as 2c,2c and 2c or in other possible ways, a charge of a system exists. For example, a neutrino decays sometimes to give one electron and one proton by default in nature.

The system net charge will be zero as the electrons and protons have the same magnitude and opposite signs.

### Charge been a conserved quantity

Quantization of charge shows that the charge is a quantized quantity (limit the number of possible values of a quantity). It can be express as an integral multiple of the basic unit of charge (e- charge on one electron). For example, if the charge of a body is x, then it can be written as:

X=ne

where n is an integer, not a fraction of an irrational number. n can be any positive or negative integer like 1,2,3, -5, etc. the charge that electron or proton carries are the basic unit of charge. As the electron charge is known as negative, it is denoted as “-e” and proton charge is denoted as “e”.

This principle “charge of quantization” was propose by an English experimentalist “Faraday” during his experimental law of electrolysis. Millikan latter on demonstrating and prove the principle in 1992.

The principle can be used to calculate the total amount of charge presented in a body and can also be used to calculate the number of electrons and protons in a body. Suppose a system has x1 number of electrons and x2 of protons; the total amount of charge will be x2e – x1e.

## How to Measure an Electric Charge?

Coloumb is the unit of electric charge.
“One coulomb is the quantity of charge transferred in one second.”
Mathematically, the definition of a coloumb is represented as:
Q = I.t

According to Coulomb’s Law, the magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the distance separating them.

This is why the strength of the force acting between charges either repel (Like) or attract (Unlike). With Coulumb’s law, we can quntitatively determine the strength of an electric force between charges and get information about their interaction.

That is all for this article, where i explained what an electric charge is, its formula, properties, examples, types, and methods of charging. I hope it was helpful, if so, kindly share with others. Thanks for reading, see you around!