Civil Engineering

Everything you need to know about construction robot

Modern technology has been adopted by the construction industry in the fight to make it safer, more productive, and more affordable.

Japan Construction Robots

However, construction robots are now a significant factor in the development of the sector as the industry transformation has advanced.

Well, in this article I’ll be discussing about construction robot as the following questions will be discussed:

  • What is construction robot?
  • What are the types are of construction robot?
  • What are the uses of construction robot?
  • How does construction robot work?
  • What is the impact of construction robot?
  • What are the features of construction robot?
  • What is the notable construction by robots?
  • What are the Capabilities of construction robot?
  • What is Surveying for a Construction Robot?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of using robotics in construction?

Let’s, begin!


What is construction robot?

Construction robots are machines made to automate a variety of operations that would otherwise be done by human workers in the sector. They typically use advanced sensors and preprogrammed algorithms to do predefined tasks including lifting, hauling, welding, and other activities. The construction business has undergone a transformation because to these marvels of modern technology, which have enhanced efficiency, reduced costs, and improved safety.

However, Construction robots become important participants in the construction environment by freeing up labor resources and optimizing technology improvements. These are expected to increase in frequency during the coming years, according to many.

Read more: Understanding yellow standards in construction

What are the types are of construction robot?

Below are the 3 types of construction robot:

  • Mobile robots
  • Stationary robots
  • Swarm robots

Mobile robots

Construction can be expedited by parallelizing fabrication processes and deploying transportable multi-robot building systems, however these methods frequently require significant supporting infrastructure.

Furthermore, difficulties are brought on by mobility, including state assessment, localisation, sensing of the surroundings, motion planning, and control. Due of the famously chaotic and quickly changing nature of building sites, these problems can be especially difficult for mobile robots there. In the notoriously turbulent and often changing environments of construction sites, mobile robots may have an especially tough time overcoming these challenges.

However, despite being relatively simple to automate, stationary robots such as gantries, robotic arms, or cable robots can only build structures that fit in their workplace. Contrarily, mobile robots can erect structures that are far larger than themselves. Despite the high cost and difficulty of constructing these robots, their advantages on uneven terrain make them essential for the majority of applications. These robots can be divided into four categories: walking, flying, swimming, and mobile robots on wheels.

Below are the types of mobile robots:

  • Swimming Mobile Robots
  • Flying Mobile Robots
  • Walking Mobile Robots
  • Wheeled Mobile Robots

Swimming Mobile Robots

The underwater vehicle-manipulator system is one of the hottest research topics as a crucial area of mobile robotics.

However, not being widely used in architecture. An undersea robot called OceanOne is an idea. It is a robotic humanoid that investigates the ocean floor. It makes use of the most advanced remotely operated vehicles and the advantages of humanoid robots, like having a robotic hand that can retrieve objects much like a real human hand.

Read more: Understanding green building

What are the uses of construction robot?

Construction robots, which offer higher accuracy, safety, and efficiency than manual building methods, have changed the sector in recent years. In the construction business, construction robots are employed for a variety of tasks, including surveying, 3D scanning, welding, drilling, placing bricks, and constructing structures. 3D scanning and surveying, which is frequently used to create precise models of construction sites and buildings before or during construction, is one of the most popular applications for construction robots. This makes it possible to design and plan projects more quickly and accurately than ever before, as well as to measure buildings and conduct detailed site surveys.

Furthermore, drilling and welding procedures are now both performed entirely by robots, negating the need for manual labor. This increases the accuracy of welds and fasteners while lowering the possibility of human error. Some robots can lift and move pallets of materials up to five times faster than manual labor, and they are also employed to move materials around construction sites. This aids in accelerating and streamlining the construction process while lowering the number of man-hours needed to finish a project.

However, the construction industry is using robots more and more to erect entire buildings and install bricks. In addition to reducing the need for manual labor, this enhances the precision and consistency of brick and block laying as well as the overall structure’s construction. Robots are being employed in demolition to remove materials and structures in a precise and secure manner. This lessens the possibility of worker injuries while also reducing the quantity of garbage, dust, and debris produced during demolition operations.

Flying Mobile Robots

The most recent study topic for on-site building is the investigation of airborne methods to robotic construction. This idea involved modifying construction materials in the air using flying vehicles. This would do away with the limitations of movement on the ground and the requirement for scaffolding. Construction flying robots hover and navigate in the air using balloons, propellers, or wings that resemble airplanes, birds, or insects. This would do away with the limitations of mobility on the ground and the requirement for scaffolding. Construction flying robots hover and travel in the air using balloons, propellers, or wings that resemble airplanes, birds, or insects.

However, gramazio and Kohler’s flying robots serve as models for how flying robots should be built. In the French FRAC Center in Orléans, these robots are being utilized to erect a tower that is six meters tall. To assemble the structure, the mobile robots lift, carry, and stack 1500 polystyrene foam blocks.

Walking Mobile Robots

While being substantially more expensive than wheeled robots, walking robots have several advantages over wheeled robots. These robots offer improved mobility, energy efficiency, stability, and a smaller impact on the ground because to their versatility and efficiency as well as the fact that they can work on soft and uneven terrain.

Furthermore, another advantage of walking robot is their ability to react swiftly to gaps or barriers in the surroundings. In a nutshell, their key advantages are their versatility and agility over difficult terrain. Depending on how many legs they have, walking robots come in a variety of forms. Bipeds (humanoids), animals with four legs (quadrupeds), creatures with six legs, and so on are the most notable. The Boston Dynamics robot Spot 1.1 is a fantastic example of a four-legged walking robot. You can automate routine inspection chores and data collection in a safe, precise, and frequent manner with this since it can tackle terrain with exceptional mobility.

However, spot uses remote sensing to operate. When it moves around a site, it records the map it makes along the way. It will be able to recall its route through an environment and take that route again on its own without requiring human control once more.

Wheeled Mobile Robots

Wheels are one of the most crucial systems for robot mobility. Wheels are easier to design, construct, and program when the robot is travelling over flat, unobstructed ground. Wheel control is simpler than alternative methods and doesn’t subject the surface it moves on to as much wear and strain. Another advantage is that because the robot is typically in contact with a surface, they do not present a substantial challenge in balancing issues. The most well-known example of one of these robots is the Heap, an autonomous walking excavator. Hydraulic excavators like The Heap are employed in a variety of tasks. In June 2020, The Heap was first utilized to independently and precisely excavate free-form embankments.

However, Stones with atypical shapes are also utilized to construct dry stone walls. Stones are picked up and moved in front of the roof-mounted LiDARs after the machine maps them. This robot can also perform autonomous forestry tasks by harvesting trees. Heap can also be used for semi-autonomous teleoperation. A typical approach with an operator in the cabin would be too risky, thus it was employed to dig a trench in soil that contained live World War Two ordnance.

Stationary robots

Robots that remain in one position while operating are known as stationary robots. It is not implied by the word “stationary” that the robot is not moving. It implies that the robot’s base remains stationary throughout the process. Static robots are those that are fastened to the ground, the ceiling, or another surface. These robots are incredibly easy to automate, but they can only build anything that will fit in their workplace. By adjusting an end-location effector’s and orientation, these robots typically alter their surroundings.

However, gantry robots, robotic arms, and cable robots are the most common stationary robots used in construction.

Below are the types of stationary robots:

  • Robotic Arms (Articulated Robots)
  • Cable Robots
  • Gantry Robots

Robotic Arms (Articulated Robots)

Robotic production, machinery, and industrial automation all start with robotic arms, also referred to as articulated arm robots. They have developed from their earliest, rooted roots in the automobile manufacturing industry into a complete, adaptable tool for many industries. These are, in fact, the most common kinds of robots used in construction. They are capable of many different jobs, including drilling, welding, material handling, thermal spraying, painting, and many more.

However, these robots have articulation sites in their joint structures. The robot arm’s range of motion is increased by each additional joint, or axis; the more axes there are, the more precise the robot arm may be. The large-scale, multi-story architectural installation of Maison Fiber by ICD and ITKE is a noteworthy illustration of the use of a robotic arm in architecture. Reconfigurable fiber floor slabs and walls that fit into a 2.5-meter grid make up the structure. A coreless, robotic wrapping technique was used to manufacture the fibrous wall and ceiling components, allowing for regionally load-adapted design and fiber alignment and producing an incredibly light structure. This project is a spatial representation of a highly dematerialized building made of interchangeable elements.

 Cable Robots

Flexible cables are used as actuators in cable robots. Each cable has an end connected to the end-effector and is looped around a motor-driven rotor. A cable-driven robot is a device with various unique characteristics, including the ability to move big weights across large distances while maintaining structural simplicity in a way that other types of robots cannot.

However, these robots are capable of performing a variety of manipulation tasks and have a number of advantages over more conventional robotic manipulators. There aren’t many cable-driven robotic devices available right now. The “CU-Brick,” a notable example of a cable robot in construction, can automatically build geometrically challenging brick buildings using hundreds or more bricks. A gripper end-effector and cable actuators make up the device, which may be mounted on metal frame buildings to support walls and roofs in a variety of contexts.

Gantry Robots

An overhead system with an attached manipulator that enables movement across a horizontal plane is referred to as a gantry robot. Cartesian or linear robots are other names for gantry robots. For pick-and-place operations, welding, and many other uses, they are frequently enormous systems. Large work areas and improved positioning accuracy are provided by these robots in the construction industry. Position accuracy refers to the robot’s capacity to put a component accurately. Gantry robots are easier to program in terms of motion since they use an X, Y, and Z coordinate system. Another advantage is that they are less restricted by floor area restrictions.

However, the autonomous timber joint assembly of a spatially connected structure is one amazing application of gantry robots in construction, according to Gramazio Kohler’s study team. Custom computer modeling, visualization, and feasibility-checking software is used in the project to build structures with lap joints. 40 pieces of 100x100mm profile timber parts make up the 3.4-meter-tall structure. Another illustration is FrameForm, a mesh mold extension that offers a computational method for creating sturdy metal frames. It incorporates automated bar bending, welding, and cutting using a gantry robot. Globally aligning frames in this way makes the fabrication process scale-invariant and ensures that frames are both aesthetically pleasing and structurally sound. It also decomposes models into fabricatable components.

Swarm robots

One of the most recent advancements is swarm robotic platforms, which allow multiple robots to work together and complete tasks at the same time. Robotic devices called “swarm robots” are used in construction.

However, the construction robots work as a team of interconnected robot modules rather than as a single robot. The robots as closely as possible follow their pre-planned, collision-free courses. The robots steer clear of contact. The system can alter the number of robots employed during fabrication and add, subtract, or reuse them as a result of these requirements. To enlarge the structure’s footprint transversely without delaying manufacture, the system may be fully parallelized.

Below are the types of swarm robots:

  • Fiberbot
  • NoMad
  • Outlook


Similarly, Fiberbot, created by the Mediated Matter Group at MIT, is a team of similar robots that collaborate to create different parts of a single structure that are ten times bigger than itself. Each robot wraps fiber and resin around itself to create an autonomous composite tube that can ascend and expand.

However, the robots’ trajectories are controlled to construct intertwining tubes that result in a computationally generated woven design. This entire system is scalable, allowing for the addition of more robots without dramatically raising the level of design complexity or production time, providing a scalable development in site-specific, autonomous fabrication technologies.


NoMad is a prime example of swarm robotics. The idea was developed by Architectural Association students and is based on a tiny motor unit connected to many magnetic panels that can adjust into different shapes.

However, these motorized parts expand, move, and spin form simple structures by themselves. In fact, this idea is so novel that no one on the site has any authority over any of these tasks. The idea is seen as a futuristic notion for a movable, infinitely changeable, non-finite architecture.


In controlled environments, efficient construction robots have a promising future. Robots can learn, adapt, and behave based on their senses and perceptions, which sets them apart from normal architectural equipment. Though still in its infancy, robotics in architecture and construction will undoubtedly have a bigger role in the future than it does now.

However, the main subcategories of construction robots were covered in this article. The kind of robot used will depend on the needs and potential of each project. All varieties are intended to help humans in some capacity.

Read more: Everything about Construction survey

What are the uses of construction robot?

There are a few robots on building sites, but they are small in number compared to the number of robots used in manufacturing elsewhere in the construction sector.

Below are the uses of construction robot:

  • Arc welding metal components.
  • Applying adhesives.
  • Building construction machinery.
  • Assembling doors and windows.

How does construction robot work?

In the construction business, construction robots are growing in popularity. These are self-sufficient devices that have been programmed to carry out several activities on construction sites, including cutting and welding, excavating, and laying foundations.

However, these robots accomplish their tasks more correctly, quickly, and securely than human workers because to a combination of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and sensors. In addition, using construction robots can speed up project completion and enhance the quality of a job site. Construction robots are adaptable and may be tailored to the requirements of the job site.

Read more: Everything you need to know about modular construction

What is the impact of construction robot?

Due of labor union opposition, the use of construction robots is uncommon in the USA.

However, these robots are well received in Japan.

Below are the impacts of construction robot:

  • Job Changes.
  • Higher Quality.
  • Total Automation.
  • Easier Demolition.

Job Changes

Some duties that construction employees used to carry out will be handled by robots. This is a major factor in the construction industry’s sluggish adoption of new technology. Employees are reluctant to change since they’ve been doing things a certain way for a while and fear losing their jobs if they do. Robotics won’t totally eliminate all occupations, but it will fundamentally alter what employees perform on a daily basis and, in certain situations, eliminate the need for labor altogether.

However, robotics in construction improves safety, efficiency, and cost. Construction automation replaces the tedious and hazardous tasks involved in construction and produces high-quality projects fast while saving time and money. It’s time to get on board, despite the fact that deploying robotic technology may appear intimidating. Stop waiting and board the robotics revolution that is about to sweep the construction industry!

Higher Quality

Higher quality results from automation. Regrettably, human mistake is a reality, and it shows in the quality of our work. Even when we check for errors twice, there is a good probability that we will still miss something.

However, the construction sector and its clients may relax knowing that robotic equipment is maintaining the quality of their output thanks to robotics. Automation completes tasks more effectively, quickly, and quickly.

Total Automation

Once robotics is embraced by the construction sector, all routine tasks will eventually be mechanized. This includes all processes, including manufacturing, welding, and dispensing! Less human error and significant financial benefits come from increased automation.

Easier Demolition

It takes a lot of effort to tear down walls and shatter bricks and concrete. Without robotics, demolition would take far longer than it would have to because of human strength constraints.

However, buildings may be destroyed and disposed of using robotics in a single day, saving both time and money.

Read more: Understanding yellow standards in construction

What are the features of construction robot?

Below are general features for construction robot:

  • It must be able to handle components of variable size and weight.
  • It must be able to adjust with changing environment.
  • It must be able to interact with its surroundings.
  • It must be able to perform multiple tasks.
  • It must be able to move.

What is the notable construction by robots?

Below are the lists of notable construction by robots:

  • Concrete floor finish robot was used by Kajimaand Tokimec companies in Japan.
  • Obayashi Corporation-in Japan has developed and used a system to lay concrete layers in dam construction.
  • 30 storied Rail City Building at Yokohama, Japan was constructed by an automated system.

What are the Capabilities of construction robot?

Below are the capabilities of construction robot:

  • Monitor the construction progress.
  • Inspection robots are used to investigate the infrastructures, mainly at dangerous locations.
  • Building walls.

What is Surveying for a Construction Robot?

I always see at least one post regarding artificial intelligence or machine learning when I check my social media accounts. Yet it appears underrepresented in such talks, I recently read of a similarly significant technological revolution: robot builders.

However, diggers, cement mixers, jackhammers, electric drills, and screwdrivers are just a few examples of tools that make building easier because to earlier technological advancements. But during the past few years, automation has also started to get attention as an important development.

Below are the lists of surveying for construction robot:

  • Automated Assembly
  • Automated Synthesis
  • Hybrid Surveyors

Automated Assembly

In the next 20 years, automated assembly is not likely to occur on a big scale, but there are increasing examples of edge cases where robots perform more kinetic labor. For instance, Construction Robotics’ Sam100 Semi-Autonomous Mason is now working on a few construction sites in the United States. Every 8.5 seconds, it can install a brick and apply mortar to bricks of any size. The Sam100 can lay more than 3,000 bricks in an eight-hour shift, compared to a human mason’s 300–600 bricks. Millions of people watch videos of Sam100 in action on video-sharing websites, demonstrating the excitement and interest in this subject. Sam100 joins Hadrian X from Australia’s Fast Brick Robotics, which can build the superstructure of a typical masonry home in just two days and can both 3D print and lay bricks. A robot from the Danish company Odico that employs electrically heated wire to cut through industrial foams while matching the geometry of a specified CAD model is another intriguing example of a cutting-edge construction robot.

Furthermore, the French company Effidence’s EffiBOT may follow workers who are transporting supplies and tools. Clearly, there is resistance to the idea of more work being automated by robots in any industry. Although the samples given above are incredible, robots won’t begin to build homes in large quantities for some time. Of course, there are a lot of advantages that are obvious, such cost, time, and environmental impact.

However, some of the disadvantages can also be considered important for long-term acceptance and success, such as the necessity to retrain a portion of the workforce. When I learn about technology, I don’t always consider how it will affect construction projects because I’m a surveyor. I consider, instead, what this automation means for the surveying sector. The good news is that there should be lots of chances for surveying enterprises that provide services to building construction companies given the increased aspirations to design better and build faster.

Automated Synthesis

I was reminded of how quickly the foundations of construction are changing by an article from the World Economic Forum titled “Built by Robots: This Swiss Startup May Transform the Building Industry Forever.” In the article, a three-story “DFAB” proof-of-concept home in Switzerland is highlighted. It has 3D-printed ceilings, energy-efficient walls, and robot-assembled timber beams.

Furthermore, the researcher in charge of the experiment mentioned in the article, had a distinct idea of how robots and people might collaborate in the future.

However, humans should reverse engineer the design to enable robots to develop materials and structures that play to their strengths rather than expecting them to synthesize human skill. Off-site home building is not a recent development; businesses like Huf Haus have reignited popular interest in prefabricated structures over the past 20 years. The DFAB home stands out due to its extensive use of 3D printing and simple robotic assembly, which eliminates a whole level of labor-intensive human labor from the building’s construction. These components still need to be assembled by humans, but if designers and builders completely adopt Kohlers’ concept, the building can be made simpler enough that some of this assembly can be done by robots.

Hybrid Surveyors

Accurate sizing information is necessary if a robot is to produce an item. Accurate position data is needed so that a robot may place something in the proper spot on the job site. Compromise won’t be an option, tolerances will be strict, accuracy and precision will be required—all of which sound like the calling card of a surveyor to me. I am not sure a robot would be able to self-solve the problem on the spot, but a human on a building site can notice a little discrepancy and instinctively know how to tackle the problem. The efficiency advantage that was one of the reasons for adopting robots in the first place might be reduced if it found the issue and then asked for human intervention.

Furthermore, the greatest strategy to maximize robot performance is to give them accurate information that accurately depicts reality. Will a survey ever be taken without a human being present? It may be argued that in some data collection circumstances, our role has already slightly changed. For instance, instead of choosing which specific spots to measure, we might choose a region and density that the instrument should record. The Leica RTC360 3D laser scanner and other mobile technologies, such the Leica BLK2GO, which automatically capture 3D point clouds as an operator travels around and around a location, are largely responsible for the improvements, acceptability, and application of technology in this area. Without a person, data collection is possible, but a survey (including deliverables) is not.

However, what it means to be a “surveyor” may need to change for us surveyors.

Read more: Understanding surveying

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using robotics in construction?


Below are the advantages of robots in construction and civil engineering:

  • Time and Cost efficacy
  • Construction site safety
  • Enhanced accuracy
  • Increased efficiency

Time and Cost efficacy

However, robots are more efficient and quicker than manual work. It leads to a swift completion of the task, which ultimately saves the construction project money and time overall.

Construction site safety

The use of robotics and automation on building sites offers improved worker safety measures. The requirement to personally enter the risky region is eliminated because the robots may be operated from a safer location.

Enhanced accuracy

Robots are much more exact than human laborers. Robotics technology is used to produce highly accurate results by removing the possibility of human mistake.

Increased efficiency

The construction robots are created and programmed for improved efficiency, which results in more effective work.


Below are the disadvantages of robots in construction and civil engineering.

  • Requires professional training
  • Better suited for repetitive tasks
  • Maintenance
  • Fear of unemployment
  • High initial cost

Requires professional training

Robotics and automation are a broad field that requires expert expertise before it can be used in business. If you plan to use robotics in your project, you must engage qualified operators.

Better suited for repetitive tasks

Construction robots may accomplish one duty at a time and are essentially trained to carry out a variety of repetitive activities. A brick-laying robot is skilled at laying bricks, yet it cannot destroy a building. While competent laborers are capable of performing a variety of jobs like blockwork and plastering.


After all, robotics is a technology. Robotics, like all other technologies, eventually needs maintenance to keep working effectively. Although it may seem simple, maintaining many robots might lead to higher costs.

Fear of unemployment

Laborers worry about losing their jobs, and automation and robotics have begun to replace a sizeable portion of the workers in the construction industry, removing the manual operations.

High initial cost

Robotics may be more affordable in the long term, but the upfront cost of the machinery and equipment is significant.

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What are robots used for in construction?

There are a few robots on building sites, but they are small in number compared to the number of robots used in manufacturing elsewhere in the construction sector. Instead, they are used for the creation of construction equipment, the arc welding of metal parts, the usage of adhesives, and the assembly of doors and windows.

What type of robots are used in construction?

Gantry robots, robotic arms, and cable robots are the most common stationary robots used in construction.

What are the advantages of construction robots?

Reduce waste and operating costs: Doing more work in less time necessitates a reduction in trash production and on-site waste disposal costs. This advantage is inherent in robots’ ability to operate for far longer periods of time and with greater levels of accuracy than humans.

How much is a Construction Robotics SAM100?

The SAM100 costs roughly $500,000 and has a capacity of 2,000–3,000 bricks per day using a conveyor belt, robotic arm and gripper, and concrete pump (Bogue, 2018).

Read more: List of best glues for metal

What are 5 different types of robots?

The six most prevalent categories of robots are articulated robots, humanoids, cobots, autonomous mobile robots (AMRs), automated guided vehicles (AGVs), and hybrids.

How much do construction robots cost?

The drawbacks of using robots in construction include the fact that they can only carry out the tasks for which they have been designed. However, some estimates have the initial capital expenditure at as much as US$150,000, which is a substantial sum.

What are the 6 major types of robots?

The six most prevalent forms of robots are articulated robots, humanoids, cobots, autonomous mobile robots (AMRs), automated guided vehicles (AGVs), and hybrids.

What are the four main types of robots?

Below are the types of robots:

  • Articulated Robots. An articulated robot is the type of robot that comes to mind when most people think about robots.
  • SCARA Robots.
  • Delta Robots.
  • Cartesian Robots.

What is building a robot called?

Robots Technology:

Robotics is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and science devoted to the creation, maintenance, and application of mechanical robots.

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What are 5 uses of robots?

Below are the 8 uses of robots:

  • Spot Welding.
  • Materials Handling.
  • Machine Tending.
  • Picking, Packing and Palletizing.
  • Mechanical Cutting, Grinding, Deburring and Polishing.
  • Arc Welding. Arc welding, or robot welding, became commonplace in the 1980s.

That is all for this article, where we’ve discussed the answers to the following questions:

  • What is construction robot?
  • What are the types are of construction robot?
  • What are the uses of construction robot?
  • How does construction robot work?
  • What is the impact of construction robot?
  • What are the features of construction robot?
  • What is the notable construction by robots?
  • What are the Capabilities of construction robot?
  • What is Surveying for a Construction Robot?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of using robotics in construction?

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I hope you learn a lot from the reading. If you do, kindly share it with others. Thanks for reading; see you around!

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