MAP sensor

Getting To Know the MAP Sensor

The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor is one of the sensors used by an engine control module (ECM) to calculate fuel injection for optimal air-fuel ratio by continually monitoring intake manifold pressure information. A mass airflow (MAF) sensor is more usually utilized in place of a MAP sensor; nevertheless, turbocharged engines normally require both a MAP and a MAF sensor.The manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor)

The MAP sensor also plays an important function in assisting the ECM in determining when ignition should occur under various engine load situations. Regardless of which sensor your engine employs, the ECM will be unable to optimize fuel injection without accurate air mass information from a functional sensor.

The answers to the following questions will be discussed in this article:

  • What is the MAP sensor?
  • How does it work?
  • Where is it located?
  • What are the symptoms of a bad MAP sensor?
  • How much does it cost to replace the MAP sensor?

Ok, let’s get started!


What is the MAP sensor?

The manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor) is one of the sensors used in the electronic control system of an internal combustion engine. MAP sensor-equipped engines are often fuel-injected. The absolute pressure sensor in the manifold sends instantaneous manifold pressure data to the engine’s electronic control unit (ECU).

The data is used to calculate air density and establish the engine’s air mass flow rate, which affects the required fuel metering for optimum combustion (see stoichiometry) and influences ignition timing advance or retard. A fuel-injected engine may also use a mass airflow sensor (MAF sensor) to detect intake airflow.

A normal naturally aspirated engine arrangement uses either one or the other, however, forced induction engines utilize both; a MAF sensor on the Cold Air Intake leading to the turbo and a MAP sensor on the intake tract post-turbo before the throttle body on the intake manifold.

Using a second variable from an IAT Sensor (intake air temperature sensor), MAP sensor data can be transformed into air mass data. This is known as the speed-density approach. Engine speed (RPM) is also utilized to identify where on a lookup table to determine fueling, resulting in speed-density (engine speed/air density).

Read: Understanding Boost Pressure Sensor

How does it work?

The MAP sensor is an input sensor that monitors engine load and outputs a signal proportional to the sum of vacuum pressures. Following that, an engine computer uses this data to modify explosion timing and fuel enhancement. When the engine is working hard, the ingestion vacuum drops because the throttle releases widely.

To maintain the air or fuel ratio instability, the engine uses more air or more fuel. In fact, when the computer analyzes a load signal from the sensor, it normally changes the fuel blend to be somewhat richer than usual, allowing the engine to produce more power.

Simultaneously, the computer will delay explosion timing slightly in order to prevent igniting, which might impair the engine and its performance. When the conditions change and the car is moving with a light load, the engine requires less power.

The choke cannot be opened too widely or it will become blocked, causing the intake vacuum to increase. The MAP sensor recognizes this, and the computer responds by leaning out the fuel blend to reduce fuel use and improving ignition timing to squeeze out some fuel economy outside the engine.


Where is it located?

The manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor) location

On most vehicles, the MAP sensor is positioned on the intake manifold. It can also be mounted to the car’s body using a vacuum pipe connected to the intake manifold. The location of the MAP sensor is determined by the design of your vehicle, and it is advised that you consult the service manual to determine the exact location of the MAP sensor in your vehicle.

What are the symptoms of a bad MAP sensor?

Here are the most common symptoms of a bad manifold absolute pressure sensor:

Due to erroneous engine load calculation, a defective MAP sensor will impair the ECM’s ability to regulate air/fuel ratio and ignition timing. This can result in an overly rich or underly rich air-fuel combination. A bad MAP sensor might cause the following symptoms:

  • A lean or a rich air-fuel mixture
  • Illumination of the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL)
  • Emissions test failure
  • Inefficient use of fuel

A lean or a rich air-fuel mixture

A lean air-fuel ratio (too little fuel in the mixture) can cause surging, stalling, lack of power, hesitation on acceleration, backfiring via the intake, and overheating. A high air-fuel ratio (too much fuel in the mixture) can result in rough idle, poor fuel economy, and slow acceleration. When the engine is idle, a rich air-fuel mixture is sometimes detectable by a strong gasoline stench.

Illumination of the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL)

A bad MAP sensor may not deliver accurate manifold pressure data instantly or may present the ECM with unintelligible data. When the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) and Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP) indicate that the engine is idling yet the engine vacuum is low, this is an indication that the engine is idling. When the ECU detects a defect in the MAP, the MIL illuminates to inform the driver that there is a problem with the sensor.

Inefficient use of fuel

When a defective MAP sensor gives an inaccurate value to the ECM, the ECM determines that the engine is under heavy load. The ECM responds by injecting more gasoline into the cylinders and advancing the spark timing, resulting in excessive fuel consumption, poor fuel efficiency, and explosion. If your car consumes more fuel than usual when driving a specified distance, it could be due to a defective MAP sensor.

Emissions test failure

If the ECM is unable to precisely control the air-fuel ratio, your car may emit more pollutants and fail an emissions test. Excessive fuel use can result in increased hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, whilst insufficient fuel consumption can result in increased nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. High amounts of emissions can harm the catalytic converter, resulting in a failed emissions test for your car.

Want an easy MAP sensor tune-up, here is a video to help in cleaning the MAP sensor:

Read: Everything You Need to Know About Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor

How much does it cost to replace the MAP sensor?

The manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor) replacement cost

Depending on the automobile model and labor expenses, the average MAP sensor repair costs between $60 and $170. Labor ranges from $30 to $70, while the sensor itself ranges from $30 to $100. Most MAP sensor replacements are pretty simple, and you can perform them yourself at home on most car models. You may easily save money by doing it yourself if you have a little car expertise.

FAQs about MAP sensor

What happens when the MAP sensor goes bad?

An incorrect sensor reading will force the computer to adjust the amount of fuel it sends, robbing the engine of power or causing it to operate poorly. When there is less fuel entering the engine, performance suffers, but it can also cause the engine to stall, posing a serious safety risk.

What does a MAP sensor do?

The manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor) collaborates with the intake air pressure to define the necessary air and fuel quantities for the ignition cylinders. The MAP sensor detects the vacuum in the intake manifold, which varies with engine load in relation to barometric pressure.

What are the symptoms of a failing MAP sensor?

What to check for if your MAP sensor fails:

  • Look for a high air-fuel ratio, rough idle, poor fuel economy, slow acceleration, and a strong gasoline odor (particularly at idling).
  • Surging, stalling, lack of power, hesitation on acceleration, backfiring via the intake, and overheating are all signs of a lean air-fuel ratio.

Does the MAP sensor affect idle?

A failing map sensor can cause engine rpm to vary or spike, particularly at idle or low speeds. When this happens, if you switch on the air conditioning or use the power steering, the engine may die. It will generally restart, but the situation will deteriorate and become dangerous.

What causes MAP sensor to fail?

What causes MAP sensors to fail? MAP sensors, like most electric sensors, are susceptible to contamination. If the map sensor employs a hose, the hose can become clogged or leak, rendering the sensor unable to read pressure changes. Extreme vibrations from driving can loosen its connections and cause external damage in some situations.

Is it better to clean or replace a MAP sensor?

MAP sensors have no moving parts and do not normally wear out, although cleaning the MAP sensor may be necessary if it has become polluted by carbon or other engine deposits. Contamination could be at blame if the voltage is slow to respond to pressure changes.

Can a car run without a MAP sensor?

Yes, you can drive a car without a MAP sensor, but it is dangerous. Excessive fuel delivery may cause harm to the engine and exhaust system if the pressure sensor is unplugged.

What causes MAP sensors?

The MAP sensor tells the engine computer to provide more fuel when the throttle is wide open and the air is rushing into the intake manifold (producing a reduction in pressure). When the throttle is closed, pressure rises, and MAP sensor readings instruct the computer to reduce the amount of fuel entering the engine.

How do I reset my MAP sensor?

Examine the MAF sensor and clean it with dry air. Then turn it on, detach the battery for 12 minutes, then reconnect it. This will free up the computer’s need to relearn itself. Then take the vehicle for a spin and watch what happens.

That is all for this article, in which we looked at the manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor). With that said, the following questions were addressed:

  • What is the MAP sensor?
  • How does it work?
  • Where is it located?
  • What are the symptoms of a bad MAP sensor?
  • How much does it cost to replace the MAP sensor?

Hope you learn a lot from the reading. If you do, kindly share it with others. Thanks for reading; see you around!


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