Parts and elements of CNC machine systems

Machine tools that feature CNC system contain some major parts and element that helps the effectiveness of the machine. Previously an article was published on control code one must know before using any CNC machine. We’ve examined two codes as G-code and M-code.

CNC lathe machine parts and elecments

Today we’ll be looking at major parts of CNC machines and some element they feature.

Parts of CNC Machines

The following stated below represent the various CNC machine parts:


These parts on CNC machines carries all the machine load, this is to say all other components are mounted on it. The bed component is made of hard material like cast iron because in CNC lathe machines the tool turret travels over them.

Read: Everything you need to know about CNC machine


The headstock is one of the main components of CNC lathe machines due to the fact that the workpiece is fixed to it. The CNC lathe features a motor to help drive the main spindle.


This lathe CNC machine part provides extra grip to the workpiece when performing operations like knurling, threading, turning. The support is provided at the end surface of the workpiece.

Tailstock quill:

The tailstock quill helps to centralize the workpiece between the headstock and tailstock.

Footswitch or Pedal:

The pedal is used to open and close the chuck when trying to grip the component, just as the tailstock quill is taken forward and reversed position.


The chuck is mounted on the main spindle which gives space for fixing the tool.

Control panel:

The control panel is also one of the important parts of CNC machines which are used to set or feed the program for the operation to be performed on the workpiece. It is also called the brain of the CNC machine.

Read: Slotter machine parts and their functions

Tool turret:

In this part, the tool is mounted on it and allows the operator to be carryout. Tool turrets vary in shapes and a number of tools that can be used on them.

Now let discuss on the CNC machine system!.

Elements of CNC Machines

The following represents the element of CNC machining system:


This is the computer input that is done with a keyboard when trying to tell the machine to perform a functional control code. This controls code are of two sets; G-codes and M-codes. M-codes are miscellaneous machine commands that do not command axis motion. Whilst G-cold are used to command specific movements of the machine, such as machine moves or drilling functions.

Tape Reader:

The tape reader serves as a storage device where the program can be store for a particular machining operation. Modification of the program can be easily done by editing the existing program to its requirement.

Read: The major parts of a planer machine and their functions


This is the main control unit of CNC machines. The interprets the input to the language the computer understood in order to control the following function:

  • Vary the spindle speed accordingly and also control the direction of rotation of the spindle.
  • To start and stop the machine spindle.
  • To start and stop coolant supply.
  • Change the required tools as per requirements.
  • Control the feed rate, and
  • To change the workpiece.

Servo system:

The servo system receives and control signals form the feedback devices and set output according to the machine parts. The servo system consists of the following parts:

  • Servo motors
  • Feed-back devices and
  • Ball screw

CNC machine:

The CNC machine is the complete equipment where the actual finished product is made. It houses the headstock, tailstock, foot-switch, tool turret and chuck.

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That’s it for this article “CNC machine parts and element of the machining system”. I hope you enjoyed the reading, if so, kindly comment and share with other students. Thanks!

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