A planer machine comprises different components that make its working effective. The machine was explained to function similarly to shaper machines but still has some differences. It was explained to be a machine tool that is designed primarily for producing planes and flat surfaces using a single-point cutting tool.
Today we’ll look into the different component of a planer machine and their functions.
Planer machine parts:
The following stated below are the planer machine parts:
The bed is like a box made of cast iron with cross ribs. The cast iron offers compressive strength to the part, it is very heavy in weight and very large. All other component of the machine is mounted like column and all moving parts are supported by the bed.
This bed is provided with accurate machine v-type or flat-type guideways for smooth sliding of the table. The bed house the driving mechanism for the table, this bed is twice the length of the table which makes the table slide on it.
The table is a rectangular material made of cast iron having a machined top surface to locate the work accurately. A t-slot is also provided on the entire length of the table to properly hold the workpiece. Some holes are drilled on its surface at regular intervals for supporting the poppets and stop pins.
A hollowed space is provided to collect the chips and a groove is cut on its side for clamping planer reversing dogs at different positions. This is seen at each end of the table.
Planer tables are available in either single or two separate tables which are mounted on guideways and can reciprocate separately or together. The bed contains hydraulic bumpers at the end to stop the table from overrunning and giving cushioning effect.
Housing or Column:
The housing is also like a box vertically structured and fastened on each side of the bed. They are also known as uprights. This planer machine part is heavily ribbed to bear heavy load during the cutting operations. The front face of each housing is designed in precision ways to slide a cross rail up and down and also contains a two-side tool head to slide upon it.
This column houses the cross-rail elevating screw, vertical, and cross-feed screws for tool heads. These screws are controlled by power or hand.
A cross rail is a rigid cast iron that connects the two housings, which provides additional rigidity to the machine. It is designed to move up and down on the face of the housing by means of elevating screw. This planer machine part can be clamped at any position and it is parallel to the top surface of the table.
The cross rail is provided with accurately machined guideways at its surface. It allows cross-feeding the tool head saddle using a screw.
This planer machine part is similar to that of the shaper machine in terms of construction and operation. This tool head is mounted on the cross rail by a saddle, which allows it to move crosswise to offer cross-feed. The swivel base is positioned on the saddles and it is graduated to 60 degrees on each side. Due to this, the swivel can be tilted at any desired angle for machining angular surfaces by rotating down the feed screw.
An apron is fixed on the face of the vertical slide which may be swiveled up to 20 degrees on each side for giving the tool clearance while working a vertical surface.
The clapper block is hinged which allows the clapper box to hold the tool post in which cutting tool in which the cutting tool is held firmly.
Read more: Difference between shaper and planer machine
Finally, a clipper block lifts the tool head upward during the return stroke to avoid the cutting edge of the tool from dragging on the work. The tool heads can move up and down by moving the cross rail up and down.
That’s it for this article, planer machine parts. I hope you enjoyed the reading, if so, kindly comment and share. Thank!