A planer machine is another type of metalworking machine tool that uses linear relative motion (reciprocating) on a single-point cutting tool to the workpiece.
Planer is much similar to shaper machines which is why an article was published on their differences. Their major difference is that planer machines are larger and move the workpiece while shaper machines rotate the cutting tool. This machine is also very important in machine shops as many operations can be performed on it.
Read more: Difference between shaper and planer machine
Today we’ll be looking at the definition, components, working principle, mechanism, operation, types, specification, and application of planer machines.
Planer machine definition:
Planer machines are machine tools that are designed primarily for producing planes and flat surfaces using a single-point cutting tool. Just as mentioned earlier, it is just like a shaper machine, but it is very large and massive. This is why it is applicable to heavy jobs that cannot be performed on a shaper machine.
The working principle of a planer machine:
The working of planer machines is quite easy and less skill to use it. the work is achieved by rigidly placing the job on the machine table. A single cutting tool that is firmly held in the tool post. The tool post is mounted on the reciprocating ram that offers the reciprocation motion of the ram by a quick return motion mechanism.
The reciprocating motion of planer machines is forward and backward movement or stroke of the ram. The forward stroke takes the cuts from the material while the return stroke set the ram for another cutting action.
The video below explained how the machine works:
The following stated below represent the applications of planer machines:
- It is used for cutting slots and grooves.
- Take cutting at an angle and machining dovetails.
- Also suitable for generating accurate flat and curved surfaces.
Advantages and disadvantages of planer machines:
The following represent planer machines benefits:
- Good surface finish.
- Low maintenance requirement.
- Greater accuracy.
- More than one tool can be used on a workpiece.
Despite the great advantages of planer machines, some limitations still occur. The following represent the disadvantages of planer machines
- Planer machines are expensive.
- It requires more power supply to work.
- A skilled worker is required.
- Only a single-point cutting tool can be used.
- Its operation is finite.
Types of planer machines:
The following are the various planer machine types:
- Double housing planer.
- Open side planer.
- Pit type of planer machine.
- Edge or plate planer.
- Divided table planer.
Planer machine mechanism:
The following are the two major types of planer mechanisms:
- Table drive mechanism.
- Feeding mechanism.
The different table drive mechanism includes:
- Open and cross belt drive.
- Reversible motor drive.
- Hydraulic drive.
Planer machine parts:
A planer machine consists of the following parts:
- Housing or Column
- Cross rail
- Tool head
- Driving and
- Feed mechanism
Planer machine operations:
The common operations performed on a planer machine include:
- Machining flat horizontal surfaces.
- Flat vertical surfaces.
- Angular surfaces and machining dovetails.
- Curved surface slots and grooves.
Planer machine specification:
The following stated below represent the specification of planer machines:
- Distance between the two housings.
- The maximum length of the table travel.
- Height from the top of the table to the cross rail in its utmost position.
Well, the specifications in the open-size planer machines are quite different. It is specified by the largest job that can be machined on its table.
Other specifications of planer machines may include:
- A number of feeds.
- The number of speeds.
- Length of the table.
- Length of bed.
- Floor space requirement.
- Power input.
- Net weight of the machine.
- Method of driving table (geared or hydraulic).
That’s it for this article, “Understand planer machines”. I hope you enjoy the reading, if so, kindly comment and share. Thank!