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Raw materials used in making Iron and steel


Raw Materials used in Making iron

In this articles, you’ll get to know different raw materials used in making iron and steel. The basic raw materials are:

Iron ore

Iron ore is one of the basic among other raw materials used in the production of iron. It is described as any mineral substance that contains enough iron which makes its smelting a viable proposition, i.e an iron content if less than 20%. Ores vary considerably in form and composition from one source to another. Some ores are naturally being found as very hard rock, some as granular masses and some as loose earthy materials and with colour variations from black to brick red.

Iron is found as chemical compound (usually an oxide) within the ore and those and those ores are generally smelted containing iron oxide materials like magnetite, hematite, and limonite. Magnetite ores are the richest known with around 65% of iron. It is ferrosoferric oxide (Fe3o4); That is, black, dense and strongly magnetic.

Raw materials used in making iron


Coke plays three important role in the black furnace during production of iron; it serves as fuel to provide heat for smelting, as a rich source for carbon monoxide gas into iron and as a non-clogging support for the burden (the charge) in the blast furnace. It porosity aiding free passage of gasser through the furnace. It is made by roasting of specially selected coking coal in large sealed ovens. Volatile substances product’s whilst the gases released are cleaned and used as fuel in other part of the plant. Coke as one of the raw materials used in  iron making is a substance made by heating coal until it becomes almost pure carbon.

Raw materials used in making iron

Also check: Non-ferrous vs Ferrous metals: types and uses and What is forging? and it advantages


Limestone serve as a fluxing agent with the extraneous materials (‘gangue’) associated with the ore. It combines with these materials (clay etc.) and makes them more readily fusible, forming a liquid slag which separates from the iron.

Raw materials used in making iron


Sinter is made of laser grade, finely divided iron ore that is roasted with coke and lime and enables it to remove a large amount of impurities in the ore.

Sinter raw materials

Some other metals such as, chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, tungsten, etc. Are sometimes mixed with iron for production of various steel.

And that is it for this article, raw materials used in making steel. I hopefully believed you now understand different types of raw materials used in the making. Thanks for reading and please don’t forget to share!



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