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Different Types of Automobile Suspension Springs

Suspension springs connect the wheels to the body of the car. Suspension springs’ major function is to compensate for uneven road surfaces, ensuring a high level of ride comfort. Second, regardless of the road’s condition, they must guarantee that the wheels are always in safe touch with it. These parameters must be met for reliable transmission of driving, braking, and transverse forces. Suspension springs are thus one of the most important safety components in modern vehicles. They have an impact on the vehicle’s handling, road-holding, and braking performance.

In this article, you’ll learn about the various types of suspension springs used in automobile vehicles.

Suspension System
Suspension System


Read more: Understanding Suspension System

Types of suspension spring

The followings are the five common types of suspension springs used in automobiles.

  1. Leaf springs
  2. Coil spring
  3. Torsion spring
  4. Airbags
  5. Rubber spring

Leaf springs

A leaf spring is made up of a series of steel plate leaves that grow in length from the center. All of the leaves are fastened in place by a center bolt in the center and side bolts practically at the sides. The main leaf, known as the spring eyes, is the longer one with bent ends. A shackle connects the spring eye to the frame. A U-bolt connects the spring’s center section to the front axle.

leaf spring

Types of Leaf Springs

The followings are the various types of leaf springs:

  1. Semi-elliptical spring
  2. Quarter-elliptical spring
  3. Three-quarter elliptical spring
  4. Transverse spring
  5. Full elliptical spring
  6. Platform type spring
Semi-elliptical spring

All vehicles are often equipped with semi-elliptical springs. Semi-elliptical springs are used in the front and rear axles of trucks, especially. In cars, however, they are only installed on the rear axle, with independent suspension installed on the front axle. Semi-elliptical springs are less expensive and easier to maintain. They extend the spring action range and endure a long period.


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Quarter-elliptical spring

In older small cars, such as Chryslers, quarter-elliptical springs were employed. This sort of spring is only a fraction of the size of a full elliptical spring and is bolted to the frame.

Three-quarter elliptical spring

The combination of semi-elliptical and quarter-elliptical springs is known as a three-quarter elliptical spring. This sort of spring was once common in older automobiles.

Transverse spring

The shape of a transverse spring is similar to that of a semi-elliptical spring, except it is inverted. Shackles connect one end of the spring to the chassis frame and the other end to the axle. The fasteners in the center also secure it to the frame.

Full elliptical spring

Full elliptical springs are made up of two semi-elliptical springs that are connected in opposite directions. This sort of spring was used in older automobiles. They don’t keep the axles aligned properly.

Platform type spring

Two semi-elliptical springs make up platform-type springs. They have a shackle on one side that connects to the chassis frame, and an inverted semi-elliptical spring on the other. The weight of the car is divided into three locations in this configuration.


Read more: Various types of a vehicle suspension systems


Coil spring

Spring steel is used to make coil springs. The independent suspension system is used to describe these. They may be used in a variety of tight places while delivering a wide range of spring rates. When compared to leaf springs, they only require half the weight to perform the same task.

They can also store twice as much energy per unit volume as leaf springs, although anti-roll bars or radius roads should be given to regulate accelerating, stopping, and cornering. The coil spring is seated in the pan-shaped brackets or spring seats attached to the rear axles. Similarly, spring seats built into the frame are utilized to compress springs against them. Torque tube or torque rod drive are also utilized in conjunction with the suspension. Coil and torsion bar springs outperform leaf springs in terms of energy storage (energy stored in a given weight of spring).

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coil spring

Torsion spring

In an independent suspension system, a torsion spring is also used. A rod acts under torsion by accepting shear loads in a torsion suspension spring. The bar has one end attached to the frame and the other attached to the wheel arm and supported in the bearing. The wheel hub is linked to the end of the wheel arm. When the wheel meets a bump, it begins to vibrate up and down, causing the torsion bar to operate as a spring.

torsion suspension spring


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Foreign automobiles have airbags and rubber springs. Foreign automobiles also employ air suspension, hydraulic suspension, and hydrogen gas suspension systems.

airbag spring

Rubber spring

Rubber springs are preferred over steel springs in suspension because they save more energy per unit weight. Rubber springs, on the other hand, are more compact than other springs. The fundamental benefit of employing a rubber spring is that, unlike steel, it does not suddenly fail, posing a lower risk. It also has good vibration dampening characteristics.

rubber springs

Helper Spring

A helper spring is similar to a semi-elliptical spring except that it lacks eyes at the ends. It is equipped with main springs, especially on the truck’s rear axle, to support the large load. When the truck is severely loaded, the ends of the helper spring touch the brackets installed on the frame.

helper spring


Read more: Understanding the working of shock absorber


Other Types of Suspension Spring

The following types of spring are primarily used in modern’s cars:

  • Cylindrical suspension springs
  • Inconstant wire suspension springs
  • Mini-block springs
  • Banana-shaped side load springs

Cylindrical suspension springs

These are standard linear spring rate cylindrical suspension springs.

Inconstant wire suspension springs

The diameter of the wire used in this type of spring reduces as the suspension spring progresses. The soft ends of the spring can be relied on for highly comfortable ride attributes under regular road conditions and load. This not only improves ride comfort but also reduces the stress on the entire wheel suspension system as well as the steering components.

Mini-block springs

Mini-block springs are formed like a barrel. A tapered wire is used to create them. They generate a progressive spring rate as a result of this. The ends of the springs are designed to prevent direct contact from winding to winding.

The main feature of mini-block springs, which were developed from an inconstant wire in the 1970s, is that the windings of the ends entangle without touching when they are loaded. The number of active windings decreases and the spring rate increases when the ends of the mini-block springs are pressed together and lie flat on the spring cups (which are normally made of a rubber block).


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Banana-shaped side load springs

The force distribution for the complete wheel suspension is controlled by this sort of spring, which reduces friction between the shock absorber piston rod and its gasket. This aids in the enhancement of shock absorber response qualities.


Suspension springs are found in automobiles to compensate for uneven road surfaces, resulting in a high level of comfortability while driving. Leaf springs, coil springs, torsion springs, airbags, and rubber springs are the common types of springs used in automobile vehicles. That is all for this article, where the various types of suspension springs are been discussed.

I hope you learned a lot from the reading, if so, kindly share with other students. Thanks for reading, see you around!