A machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is known as an electric motor. The interaction of the magnetic field and electric current in a coil winding drives motors in most cases. It generates force in the form of torque delivered to the motor’s shaft as a result of this.
DC sources, such as batteries or rectifiers, and/or AC sources, such as power grids, inverters, or electric generators, are used to power electric motors. Power source type, construction, application, and speed output type are all factors that can be used to classify motors. The arrangement of the conductors and the field in some distinct types of electric motors differ. It also regulates the mechanical output torque, speed, and position that can be used.
Modern electric motors can supply reliable mechanical power for industrial applications. Fans, blowers, and pumps, as well as machine tools, vehicles, and disc drives, are all examples of industrial applications. In electric timepieces, small motors are used. In this article, you’ll learn about 16 common types of electric motors and their functions.
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- 1 Types of Electric Motors
- 1.1 AC Motor
- 1.2 Induction motor
- 1.3 1-phase induction motor
- 1.4 3-phase induction motor
- 1.5 Series motor
- 1.6 Join our Newsletter
- 1.7 Compound motor
- 1.8 PDMC motor
- 1.9 Synchronous motor
- 1.10 Stepper motor
- 1.11 Brushless motor
- 1.12 Universal motor
- 1.13 Hysteresis motor
- 1.14 Reluctance m Motor
- 1.15 Linear Motor
- 1.16 DC Motor
- 1.17 Shunt motor
- 1.18 Separately excited motor
- 2 Conclusion
Types of Electric Motors
The following are the common types of electric motors:
- DC Motor
- Shunt motor
- Separately excited motor
- Series motor
- Compound motor
- PDMC motor
- AC Motor
- Induction motor
- 1-phase induction motor
- 3-phase induction motor
- Synchronous motor
- Stepper motor
- Brushless motor
- Universal motor
- Hysteresis motor
- Reluctance m Motor
- Linear Motor
An alternating current (AC) motor is a type of electric motor that converts alternating current into mechanical power via the electromagnetic induction phenomena. It consists of two main parts: an exterior stator that generates a magnetic field using alternating current, and an internal rotor that generates a second magnetic field using an output shaft.
Permanent magnets, reluctance power, and DC or AC electric windings can all be used to create rotor magnetic fields. In industry, three-phase AC motors are commonly used for bulk power conversion from electrical energy to mechanical work. The motor requires less energy to start and is more durable and long-lasting.
An electric current is necessary for this motor to produce torque, which is obtained through electromagnetic induction from the stator winding’s revolving magnetic field. As a result, an induction motor without an electrical connection to the rotor can be constructed.
Induction motors are widely utilized in industrial, commercial, and household applications. Because they operate at a slower speed than synchronous motors, these motors are sometimes referred to as ‘asynchronous motors.’ It has a simple, durable design that is modest in cost and requires little care.
1-phase induction motor
A single-phase power supply is used to power a single-phase AC motor, as the name implies. On the stator, single-phase winding is used, while on the rotor, cage winding is used. A pulsed magnetic field is created when a single-phase supply is applied to the stator winding. Due to inertia in the pulsing field, the rotor does not revolve.
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3-phase induction motor
A 3-phase induction motor converts 3-phase input electrical power into output mechanical power using electromechanical energy. These motors are utilized in a variety of industrial applications and are designed to run on 3-phase AC power supplies. Crushers, plunger pumps, cranes, elevators, compressors, and conveyors are just a few of the applications.
A series motor is a collection of individual motors in which the field is connected in series with the armature winding, allowing a large current to flow through it. A series motor performs the same function as other motors in that it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
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This sort of armature has a power supply terminal on one end and a field coil on the other. When the external magnetic field is almost formed, a current-carrying conductor cooperates with it, and a rotational motion can be produced. For constant and variable speed electric drives, these are suited for both high and low power drives.
The armature winding of compound types of electric motors is coupled to both series and shunt field coils. It carries enough magnetic flux in the armature to provide enough torque to help spin at the desired speed.
This motor was created to improve the qualities of both of these motors. A shunt motor has a very efficient speed regulation, whereas a series motor has a very high beginning torque. However, the starting torque is lower than that of a series motor, and the speed regulation is less effective than that of a shunt motor.
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Permanent magnet poles are used in these types of motor, as the name implies. The magnets are radially magnetized and placed on the inner walls of the cylindrical steel stator in this motor. Because there is no field coil in this motor, torque is generated by the interaction of armature flux and permanent flux.
The armature core, commutator, and armature winding make up a PDMC motor. A PMDC motor’s operating voltage is 6 volts, with 12 volts available if a 24 volt DC supply is supplied from voltage sources such as batteries or rectifiers. PMDC motors are commonly utilized in applications that demand tiny DC motors.
It is defined as an AC motor in which the rotor rotation is synced with the supply frequency. In this case, the rotor’s rotations are all equal to an integer multiple of the applied current’s frequency.
The induction current is not required for this motor to function. In contrast to induction motors, this multiphase AC motor features electromagnets on the stator that generate a spinning magnetic field. These motors are frequently employed in applications that need precise and constant action.
It’s a type of electric motor that separates a complete revolution into many equal steps. As long as the motor is suitably scaled for the application in terms of torque and speed, the position of the motor can be controlled by running and holding on to any of these stages without any position sensor for feedback.
The rotor and the stator are the two most important components. The rotor is the motor’s revolving shaft, while the stator contains the motor’s fixed parts, which are electromagnets. Without the need to activate the motor, these motors can give flexibility and consistent holding torque. They’re utilized in 3D printers, textile machines, and printing presses, among other things.
It is a type of brushless DC electric motor that operates on a direct current (DC) electric power supply. The motor is equipped with an electronic controller that alters DC currents in the motor windings, resulting in magnetic fields that revolve in space and follow the permanent magnet rotor.
The controller also controls the motor’s speed and torque by adjusting the phase and amplitude of DC current pulses. Electric motors of this sort are extremely efficient at providing huge quantities of torque across a wide speed range. Brushless motors are used in a variety of applications, including hard drives, CD/DVD players, pumps, and so on.
The universal motor is a type of electric motor that can run on either AC or DC power and creates its magnetic field using an electromagnet as a stator. Variable speed, strong transmission torque, and a high beginning torque are all attributes of this motor. Universal motors are widely found in vacuum cleaners, sewing machines, and other household appliances.
A universal motor is built similarly to a DC series motor, but with a few modifications to allow it to run on AC power. Electric motors of this sort are built to spin at high speeds of more than 3500 rpm. Because the field coil and armature will have reverse polarity with the current supply, this motor will run effectively on an AC supply.
It is a cylindrical rotor asynchronous motor that operates on induced hysteresis loss in a steel rotor with high retention. It can operate in one of three phases and is noiseless to the environment, as well as maintaining a consistent pace.
In addition, these types of electric motors are long-lasting and dependable in the field, and they can run at a variety of speeds. Hysteresis and eddy current, which are induced by the stator winding, are responsible for the torque generated in the motor. Electric clocks, tape recorders, record players, and other sound recording and production applications use hysteresis motors.
Reluctance m Motor
On a ferromagnetic rotor with no windings, reluctance motors have non-permanent magnetic poles. These types of motors give a lot of power for a reasonable price, making them appealing in a variety of applications.
When a magnetic substance is positioned within a magnetic field, it always moves up in a low reluctance manner, according to the operating principle of this motor. The main disadvantage is that when run at low speeds, it has a significant torque ripple, which creates noise. Many uses include clock timers, signaling devices, recording equipment, and so on.
Linear types of motors have a straight rotor and stator, thus instead of producing torque through rotation, it produces a linear force along its length. These electric motors, on the other hand, are not always straight.
The active component of a linear motor, for an instance, is terminated, whereas more typical motors have a continuous loop. There are two types of linear motors: low-acceleration linear motors and high-acceleration linear motors. These motors can be used to activate belt conveyors, textile loom shuttles, and other linear motion equipment.
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DC motors are rotational types of electric motors that transform electrical energy into mechanical energy. This indicates that the electrical energy input is direct current, which is then transformed into mechanical rotation. The magnetic field produces forces that are used in the most common types of DC motors.
A current-carrying conductor receives torque and develops a movement direction when a magnetic field is created. Almost every DC motor has an internal device, either electromechanical or electronic, that switches the direction of the current in the motor on a regular basis. Toys, electric cars, cranes, hoists, and steel rolling mills all employ these motors, which come in a variety of sizes.
It’s a type of DC motor in which the field winding and the armature winding are connected in parallel. As a result, the motor’s two windings are exposed to the same voltage source, and it maintains an inductive speed under any load.
When you turn on a DC motor, current travels through both the stator and the rotor. This results in the creation of two fields: pole and armature. Shunt motors are known for their low starting torque and consistent speed operation. Centrifugal pumps, elevators, lathe machines, conveyors, and spinning machines all employ this sort of motor.
Separately excited motor
The main supply is delivered independently to the armature and the field winding in these types of electric motors, as the name implies. Because the field winding is energized by a separate DC source, the current from the armature does not travel through it.
Separately excited DC motors are ideal for applications that demand a wide range of speed variations. Steel rolling mills, paper machines, ship propulsion, and other applications all use electric motors of this type.
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By combining magnetism and electric current, the electric motor generates mechanical energy utilizing DC or AC current. Because of their operating circumstances and the size of the motor, these are extremely efficient devices. DC sources, such as batteries or rectifiers, and/or AC sources, such as power grids, inverters, or electric generators, are used to power electric motors. Power source type, construction, application, and speed output type are all factors that can be used to classify motors.
That is all for this article, where the various types of electric motors are been discussed. I hope you learn a lot from the reading, if so, kindly share with other students. Thanks for reading, see you around!