Small forging operations can be completed by striking the material with a hammer, but heavier forging tasks are only completed by machines. There are three main techniques to forge. Typically, an iron-related job is referred to as blacksmithy. By heating or cooling any piece of metal, then striking it with a regular hammer or a machine designed for this purpose, forging involves giving the metal the appropriate shape.

Four different forging manufacturing processes are frequently employed to shape metal components. These techniques include seamless rolling ring forging, cold forging, open die forging, and impression die forging (closed die). Metal forgings offer a highly effective approach to producing a variety of parts for all purposes by applying localized compressive stresses. Forging operations are tasks that must be carried out during the forging process before an object can be perfectly forged, these operations are of different types which is what we’ll be discussing in this article.

types of forging operations

So, let’s dive in!


Types of forging operations

The following explained below are operations carried out in forging:


These forging operations are done to increase the cross-sectional area of the workpiece to expand the length. The force is applied in a parallel direction of the long axis. A good example of an upsetting operation is a bolt head. This procedure was used to expand the stock’s cross-sectional area over the length extension. To achieve the length, for instance, the development of the bolt head, the offsetting force is applied in a direction parallel to the long axis.

Read more:  Different types of forging operations

Types of forging operations


These types of forging operations are carried out to make the metal longer by pulling and stretching in the cross-sectional area. The force is applied in a perpendicular direction to the length axis. To extend metals length is called Drawing out. This has been represented in the image. The metal is heated at a temperature between two and the hammer is hit at the beak of the anvil. Fuller is also used for this purpose.

Types of forging operations


“Bending” is the act of turning or bending a piece of metal in a round or angular shape. The graph below illustrates this. This process is used to create round rings and other shapes. Bending operation is the most common and easiest forging. It is done to give a turn shape to a metal rod or plate.

Bending forging operation

Read more: Different Types of Forging Process


Fullering is a forging operation done by keeping the bottom fuller in an angle hole with the heated metal placed on it, the top filler is then placed above the metal, and force is applied through the top filler using a sledgehammer.

Fullering forging operations


This forging operation is carried out by striking or forcing the metal plate into the desired shape. The workpiece is forced between two die edges.

Edging forging operations

Read more: Understanding Forging Process


Cutting is a forging operation that is carried out when metal is needed to be cut apart. The operation is done when the metal is in red hot condition using a chisel and hammer. It is the process of reducing the length of long metal rods and plates; it can be done with cold or hot metals and requires the use of a chisel with a cutting angle. Metals thicker than 20 mm should only be cut after being heated.


This forging operation is done to reduce the finished work into desired size and shape, usually either round or hexagon. Bottom swage is used for small jobs while large jobs are performed by swage block.

Types of forging operations

Read more: Different types of forging defects, Causes, and their remedies

Forge welding:

These types of forging operations are performed when two pieces of metal need to be joined to increase the length. The operation is done by pressing or hammering the workpiece edge by edge still adhered. In this method, the metal pieces are heated at the proper temperature in a furnace and joined together by pressure or blows. The ends of the metal pieces are scarfed during forge welding by jumping.


This forging operation is done to produce holes in the workpiece. The workpiece is placed on a hollow cylindrical die, placing the punch to the area where a hole is required. In this procedure, a punch is used to create a hole in heated metal. The work is first placed on the punch hole of the anvil, nut, etc., for punching, after which the hole is either made with a punch or holes that have already been made by drift are widened.

Punching forging operations

Read more: Difference between Forging and Casting

Flatting and setting down:

Flatting and setting down are done to obtain a smooth surface with the use of a flatter or set hammer. This operation is done after fullering leaves a corrugated surface of the metal, or after the workpiece is forged into shape with a hammer.

Flatting and setting down forging operations


Jumping or upsetting refers to the process of heating metal in order to shorten and thicken it. The length of the metal can be almost cut in half by hopping. One can jump in three different ways: head jumping, center jumping, and full jumping.

Read more: Different Types of forging tools and Equipment

That is all for this article, different types of forging operations. I hope you got a lot from this post, if so, kindly share it with other students. Thanks for reading, see you next time!


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