Types of Forging Tools
Using appropriate forging tools and equipment lead to a perfect forge work. This forge is sometimes called hearth because it uses hearth as a source of heating metal for easy deformation. The modern forging equipment is highly automated, made of high-tech machinery and has make life easier for blacksmiths. Types of forging tool include, anvil, chisel, tong, fuller, hammer, press, die, flatter, punch and drift, swage, swage block, clamping vice, and hearth.
Furnace or hearth: it is used by blacksmiths for heating metal pieces. It consists of four legs, cast iron or steel body, iron bottom, a chimney and blower.
Anvil: this is a types of forging tools. It can serves as workbench for blacksmith. It is a large slab of metal usually made of steel. Anvil is used to perform different operations like, flatting metal surfaces and obtaining shapes with the used of hammer. Some anvil contains hardy hole and punch holes. The hardy hole serves as square shank for hardy and the punch hole provides clearance for punching hole in the metal.
Chisel: chisel is used for cutting and chipping out metal. It is made of high petroleum steel with octagonal cross section with a tapered cutting edge on one end. Chisel used in forging is of two types, Hot and cold chisel. Hot chisel are used for hot forging process and cold chisel is used for cold forging.
Tong: this types of forging tools are used in transporting the heated metal to the anvil. Tongs are available in different types and designs to provide adequate gripping of different metal shapes and sizes.
Fuller: fuller helps to create groove or indentions in the forging process. It is also used to stretch the metal. Fuller works in pears, by placing one beneath the metal, and the other on top. This allows the indentation of both sides of the metal to occur simultaneously.
Hammer: hammer is used in several ways, base on the type of forging needed to be performed, such as, hot forging, cold forging, closed die forging, upset forging, press forging etc. Hammer serves as forging tool used in achieving shapes on work pieces. It is used as striking tools and can be classified as, drop hammer and power hammer.
- Drop hammer: heavy ram is fall onto the metal by gravity. It is used by the smith’s hand power.
- Power hammer: the power source is from hydraulics, compressed air or electricity in driving the hammer. It is used when large quantity of jobs is needed. The power works by placing the work piece on it anvil, level is used in controlling the heavy ram to fall on the work piece.
Tong: this types forging tools are used for holding and turning hot metals. Tongs are available in different types and sizes. They are classified based on the grip of the tongs.
Punch and drift: this types of forging tools are made of high carbon steel which helps in making hot hole on hot metal pieces. This forging tool is available in different sizes and has common shape. A drift is a large size of punch used in enlarging holes.
Flatter: this forging tool is used to flatten the surface of the work piece. It consists of plane face joined with a straight shank. Flatters materials are high carbon steel.
Swage: this forging equipment gives various shapes to the work piece. It is also made of high carbon steel.
Swage block: this forging equipment is made of cast iron or cast steel rectangular block, having several holes in it. The holes are made of different sizes and shapes.
Set hammer: set hammer is a forging tool used for making surface plane, forming and making corners. This forging tool has similar shapes with flatter. It is made of tool steel. The work piece must be place on anvil before set hammer can be used.
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Clamping vice: this forging equipment is used in holding work piece in smithy show. It consists of two jaws, a spring and a flat bottom. The work pieces are clamped between two jaws and tighten to hold it strongly.
Bick iron: this forging equipment is made of tool steel and it is hardened. It has a tapered tail at one side and the other portion is similar to the horn of an anvil. This forging equipment can also work on an anvil due to it taper shank.
Press: this forging equipment uses excessive pressure to fold a metal into a desired shape. This forging equipment can forge the entire product at once. Presses are available in two types, mechanical and hydraulic press forging.
- Mechanical press forging: this is a mechanical device, equip with a motor, crank, flywheel etc. it easily force the ram against the metal. This forging equipment is not suitable for large or complex items, but it is useful when simple shaping effects is required.
- Hydraulic press forging: the operation is performed by high-pressure fluid propelled by hydraulic pumps in order to force ram against the metal. This forging equipment provides force while forging an item. It is used and preferred when large or complex item is needed to be forged.
Forging dies: this forging equipment is required to properly mold metal. It serves as molds which malleable metals are pressed into. The dies are important in all forging projects; it is used for large production and complex job. Dies are available in two types: open die and close die.
- Open die: open die do not completely encase the metal, providing free flow everywhere except the metal meets the die.
- Closed die: closed die completely encased the metal when hammered or pressed against the metal.