The process of obtaining and maintaining a temperature below ambient with the goal of cooling a product or area to the required temperature is referred to as refrigeration. Artificial cooling is another term for it. Refrigeration, in general, is the system of cooling, and it entails removing heat and disposing of it at a higher temperature. As a result, refrigeration is a technology that moves heat from a lower to a higher temperature. Refrigeration is used in air conditioning and heat pumps, in addition to cooling applications. Physics and thermodynamics are the fundamental principles, and they apply to all applications.
The preservation of perishable food goods by storing them at low temperatures is one of the most well-known applications of refrigeration. Refrigeration systems are also commonly employed to provide humans with thermal comfort via air conditioning. Air conditioning is the process of treating the air to control its temperature, moisture content, cleanliness, odor, and circulation as needed by the occupants of a place, a process, or products all at the same time.
Refrigeration and air conditioning systems have a long history that dates back to the human need for sustenance and comfort. The history of refrigeration is fascinating since it includes issues such as refrigeration availability, advances in prime movers and compressors, and refrigeration methods.
Well, in this article we’ll be talking about the Different types of refrigeration systems,were we’ll be taking a good look at the following content:
- What is refrigeration systems?
- What are the Types of refrigeration systems
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What is refrigeration systems?
A mechanical technique or setup known as a refrigeration system is in charge of reducing the temperature between two places. The thermodynamic properties of matter, which are in charge of transferring thermal energy or heat between two places, play a role in this process.
The complexity of the circuit is the main difference between a system and a refrigeration circuit, as systems are merely a simple configuration of the circuit, where other factors like mass balance, energy, heat transfer, etc. assume a greater significance. Depending on how refrigerant is injected or how the refrigeration system is built, there are two fundamental configurations.
What are the Types of refrigeration system?
The followings are the common types of refrigeration systems:
- Mechanical compression refrigeration
- Evaporative cooling
- Absorption refrigeration
- Thermoelectric refrigeration
- Vapor compression refrigeration
- Vapor absorption refrigeration
Mechanical compression refrigeration
Commercial and industrial refrigeration, as well as air conditioning, are typically served by mechanical compression refrigeration systems. A centrifugal, screw or reciprocating compressor compresses the refrigerant vapor in these sorts of refrigeration systems.
The compressor and pumps required for the cooling water circuit in mechanical refrigeration systems consume a lot of energy. After compression, the vapor flows via a condenser and condenses, after which it is expanded in an expansion valve to provide cooling.
Swamp coolers and evaporative cooling systems both have similar names. They function by blowing warm outdoor air over water-soaked pads. The purpose of the water is to absorb heat from the air. Cooler air enters your home as a result of the water evaporating, keeping warm air outside.
The temperature in a residence can be lowered by 15 to 40 degrees with an evaporative cooling system. Evaporative coolers are for you if you live in the southern U.S., where the climate is dry. A central air conditioner is more expensive and more difficult to install than an evaporative cooling unit.
Absorption refrigeration is a cooling system that relies on a heat source (such as solar electricity or a fossil-fueled flame) to generate the necessary energy. It employs two types of coolant, the first of which provides evaporative cooling before being absorbed by the second.
Similar to how heat is transported during mechanical compression, absorption refrigeration uses a similar technique. However, absorption systems use refrigerants that attract and absorb other substances rather than a mechanical compressor. For instance, in some systems, water serves as the absorbent and ammonia as the refrigerant. Heat may come from water, natural gas, steam, or other fuel sources rather than electricity.
These systems don’t require any kind of refrigerant or water. They depend on an electric current and a thermocouple. When current is applied to the thermocouple, one end becomes hot and the other becomes cool. To gather heat from the air and remove it, the thermocouple’s cold side is positioned in the area that needs to be cooled. Thermoelectric refrigeration is ideal for small, difficult-to-access cooling loads, but it is rarely employed for large cooling loads. Electronic systems would be a good case in point.
Heat is removed from one junction and cooling occurs when current travels between the connections of two conductors. At the second joint, heat is now collected. However, cooling is the most common application of the Peltier effect. It can also be used to control the temperature, which might be hot or cold.
Vapor such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, Freons, and others are used as working agents in these sorts.
Vapor refrigeration is further divided into the following categories:
- Refrigeration by vapor compression
- Refrigeration based on vapor absorption
Refrigeration by vapor compression
This type of refrigeration uses a liquid refrigerant in a closed system that compresses and expands the refrigerant in four phases to switch between vapor and liquid form without leaving the refrigerating area.
It absorbs heat from the cold body throughout the evaporation process and uses this heat as its latent heat to transition from liquid to vapor. The heat is rejected by external bodies during the condensing process, resulting in a cooling effect in the working fluid.
This technology is commonly utilized in building and automotive air conditioning. Furthermore, vapor-compression refrigeration systems are commonly used in oil refineries, chemical processing plants, and natural gas processing plants.
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Refrigeration based on vapor absorption
Evaporators, absorbers, generators, condensers, expansion valves, pumps, and reduction valves are all examples of refrigeration. Where high power is not easily accessible, vapor absorption refrigeration systems (VARS) are used.
Water-lithium bromide sets are often utilized in large-capacity air conditioning systems in VAR systems. Water is employed as the refrigerant, while a solution of lithium bromide in water is used as the absorbent in these systems. Heat energy is used for refrigeration in vapor absorption refrigeration systems, which is less expensive to generate than VCR systems. VAR systems are ideal for regions where low-cost thermal energy is accessible. These can be found in a lot of steam power plants.
A word From Student Lesson
A collection of parts used for cooling as well as heating makes up a refrigeration system. The utilization of a thermodynamic cycle, in which heat moves from one location to another, is typically included. In plainer terms, it’s a system that can lower temperatures and keep them within a certain range.
Although it is typically mechanical, it can also be done with ease by using water or any other liquid to lower the temperature. The four primary refrigeration system components and their roles will be covered in this article. We shall learn how refrigerators operate from here.
Well, that is all for this article where we talked about Different types of refrigeration systems, where we also answered the following question:
- What is refrigeration systems?
- What are the Types of refrigeration systems
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