Geometry teaches both 2D and 3D shapes in great length so that you can understand the various kinds of objects you will see in everyday life. These forms have distinct features and patterns. The shapes can differ based on a variety of characteristics, including angle, sides, length, height, width, area, volume, etc. We have been taught these 2D and 3D shapes from our primary school days. In this post, let’s examine several kinds of two-dimensional shapes.
Basics Shapes on 2D Shapes
Circles, triangles, squares, rectangles, pentagons, quadrilaterals, hexagons, octagons, and other basic shapes are examples of 2D shapes. Every shape, with the exception of the circle, is regarded as a polygon since it has sides. A regular polygon is one that has equal numbers of sides and angles. An ellipse is a non-polygon form, as is the circle. While polygons have a closed structure with sides, circles and ellipse are also curved shapes. Let’s now talk about each shape individually.
A circle is a closed a two-dimensional object in which every point in the plane has equal distance from a fixed point known as the “center.” A radius is the length of the circle measured from its center to its outermost line. Real-world examples of circles include wheels, pizza, orbits, etc.
A triangle is a two-dimensional polygon with three vertices and three edges. A triangle’s three angles add up to a total of 180°. The best illustration of a triangle form is found in pyramids. Here is where you may also learn about triangle characteristics.
A square is a two-dimensional polygon with four equivalent-length sides and all angles equal to 90 degrees. It is regarded as a regular quadrilateral in two dimensions. The square’s diagonals likewise split in half at a 90-degree angle. A square-shaped object would be a wall or a table with equal sides.
A rectangle is a 2D shape with four equal sides that run parallel to one another. In a rectangle, every angle is equal to 90 degrees. Examples of rectangles with length and width include bricks, TVs, and cardboard.
A pentagon is a regular or irregular 2D polygon with five sides. Each exterior angle and each interior angle of a regular pentagon are 72° and 108°, correspondingly. Five diagonals are present. A great example of the pentagon shape is the Pentagon structure, which houses the US Department of Defense.
An eight-sided polygon with regular or irregular sides is called an octagon. It is a two-dimensional shape with eight angles. 1080° is the total of an octagon’s inner angles. You can see the octagonal-shaped stop sign board by the side of the road.
Properties of 2D shapes
Below are the Properties of 2D shapes
|2 D Shapes||Properties of 2 D Shapes|
|Square||Four equal sides||Four equal angles(90°)||Four axes of symmetry|
|Rectangle||2 sets of 2 equal sides||Four equal angles(90°)||Two axes of symmetry|
|Triangle||It can have no, 2 or 3 equal sides||It can have no, 2 or 3 equal angles||It can have up to 2 axes of |
|Circle||Constant diameter and |
|The total angle of a circle is equal to 360 degrees||Almost infinite axes of |
symmetry going through
|pentagon||5 sides (can be equal or unequal)||5 angles (can be equal or unequal)||It can have up to 5 axes |
|hexagon||6 sides (can be equal or unequal)||6 angles (can be equal or unequal)||It can have up to 6 axes of |
|Octagon||8 sides (can be equal or unequal)||8 angles (can be equal or unequal)||It can have up to 8 axes of |
|Parallelogram||2 sets of 2 equal sides||2 sets of 2 equal angles||Usually no axes of symmetry|
|Rhombus||All sides the same length||2 sets of 2 equal angles||2 lines of symmetry|
|Trapezium||At least 2 parallel sides||Can have pairs of equal |
|It can have a line of |
Different Between 2D shapes and 3D Shapes
We know that 2d shapes are flat figures and 3d shapes are solid figures. Below are the few comparisons of these two types of shapes.
|2d Shapes||3d Shapes|
|It is a shape surrounded by three or more straight lines in a plane and sometimes with a closed curve.||If a shape is surrounded by a no. of surfaces or planes then it is a 3D shape.|
|These shapes have no depth or height.||These are also called solid shapes and unlike 2D they have height or depth.|
|These shapes have only two dimensions, say length and breadth, whereas curved shapes such as circle and ellipse have radii.||These are shapes containing three dimensions such as depth (or height), breadth and length.|
|Area, perimeter can be found for these shapes.||We can calculate their volume, CSA, LSA or TSA.|
|Examples: Circle, Triangle, Quadrilaterals, Polygons, etc.||Examples: Cube, Cuboid, Sphere, Cylinder, Cone, etc.|
Question to Practice
Q.1: What is the area of a square that has a side length equal to 4 inches?
- Solution: Given, length of side of square = 4 inches
- Area of square = side2 = (4) = 16 in2
Q.2: Given a circle with a radius of 7 cm, what is its area? π = 22/7)
- Solution: Circle’s radius is 7 cm.
- πr2 = (22/7) x 72 = 22 x 7 = 154 sq.cm is the area of a circle.
Q.3: Find the perimeter of the rectangle whose length and breadth are 10 cm and 5 cm, respectively. Also, find its area.
- Length of rectangle = 10 cm
- Breadth of rectangle = 5 cm
- Area of rectangle = Length x Breadth = 10 x 5 = 50 cm2
- Perimeter of rectangle = 2(Length + Breadth) = 2(10+5) = 2 x 15 = 30 cms
Area and Perimeter In 2D Shapes
The area is the region covered by a 2d shape on a plane. The areas for different shapes are given below:
|Circle||Πr2 (R is the radius of the circle)||2πr|
|Triangle||½ (Base x height)||Sum of three sides|
|Rectangle||Length x Breadth||2(Length + Breadth)|
|Rhombus||½ (Product of diagonals)||4(Side)|
|Parallelogram||Base x Height||2 (Base + Side)|
In conclusion, 2D shapes are fundamental geometric objects that exist in two dimensions, having only length and width. They come in a variety of forms, including basic shapes like circles, triangles, squares, and rectangles, as well as more complex polygons. Understanding 2D shapes involves recognizing their properties, such as perimeter and area, and classifying them as regular or irregular, convex or concave. These shapes play a vital role in mathematics, art, architecture, and many real-world applications, serving as the building blocks for more advanced geometric concepts and problem-solving in various fields.