# Understanding 3D shapes

3D shapes in geometry. The dimensions of 3D shapes usually consist of length, length, and height (three-dimensional shapes). Cone, cylinder, sphere, cube, and cuboid are the popular names for these shapes. The corresponding characteristics of edges, faces, vertices, curved surfaces, lateral surfaces, and volume define 3D shapes. In our daily lives, we meet many items of all sizes and shapes. Doormats, ice cream cones, golf balls, coke cans, and so forth. The different 3D shapes, surface area, volumes, and how to create 3D shapes using nets and 2D shapes will all be covered in this article.

Contents

## What is 3D shapes

Like two-dimensional things, which only have a length and a length, three-dimensional (3D) shapes are solid shapes or objects that have three dimensions: length, width, and height. Faces, edges, and vertices are other phrases related to 3D geometric shapes. They take up some volume since they have depth. Certain 3D shapes are 2D shapes at their bases or cross sections. A cube, for instance, has square shapes on all of its faces. Now let’s take a closer look at each three-dimensional shape. 3D shapes are divided into various groups. Some of them are shaped like prisms or pyramids, while others have curved surfaces. ### Different Between 2D Shape and 3D Shape

A 2D shape is a flat object. It has length and width but no height (ex: square, circle, etc.) and a 3D shape is a shape in space. It has length, width and height (ex: cube, sphere, etc.).

## Types of 3D shapes

The polyhedron, a straight-sided polygon, and solids with curved shapes make up 3D shapes. The polyhedra, also known as polyhedrons, are based on two-dimensional forms with straight sides. Let’s now talk in more detail about curved solids and polyhedrons.

### Polyhedrons

3D forms are called polyhedrons. As previously stated, polyhedra are solids with straight sides with the following traits:

• The edges of polyhedrons should be straight.
• Its flat sides are what are commonly referred to as the faces.
• It needs the corners, also known as vertices.

Polyhedrons are categorized as regular and irregular polyhedrons as well as convex and concave polyhedrons, just like polygons in two-dimensional structures.

### Curved Solids

Curved solids are three-dimensional forms with curved surfaces. These are some instances of curved solids:

• A sphere is an oval shape with all of its surface points equally spaced from the center.
• Cone: It has one vertex and a circular base.
• Cylinder: It is composed of two parallel circular bases joined by a curved surface.

### Vertices, Edges, and Faces

Three important elements of 3D shapes—faces, edges, and vertices—define their characteristics.

• Faces: On shapes with three dimensions, a face is a curve or a flat surface.
• Edges: A line segment dividing two faces is called an edge.
• Vertices: The intersection of two edges is known as a vertex.

The faces, edges, and vertices of 3D shapes define their characteristics, as we have already covered. As a result, all of the attributes are briefly listed in this table.

 Cube 6 square faces8 vertices12 edges Cuboid 6 rectangular faces8 vertices12 edges Cone 2 faces (circular base and curved surface)1 vertex1 edge Cylinder 3 faces2 edges0 vertices Sphere 1 curved surface0 edges0 vertices Tetrahedron 4 faces6 edges4 vertices Triangular prism 5 faces9 edges6 vertices Square-based pyramid 5 faces8 edges5 vertices

## What are the Properties of 3D Shapes

#### Faces

A 3D shape’s flat or curved surface is called a face. A cube, for instance, has six faces, a cylinder, three, and a sphere, one. #### Edges

Two faces meet at an edge. A cylinder has two edges, a cube has twelve, and a spherical has none.

#### Vertices

A vertex is the point where two edges converge. “Vertices” is the plural. A cube, for instance, has eight vertices, a cone, one, and a spherical, none.

## Question to Practice

• If the cube’s edge length is 10 cm, find its volume.
• What is the sphere’s surface area with a 3 cm radius?
• Determine the volume of the cone if its height is 5 cm and its base radius is 2.5 cm.
• The cuboid has dimensions of 20 x 15 x 10 mm. Determine the cuboid’s surface area.

## Conclusion

Geometric objects with three dimensions—length, breadth, and height—are referred to as 3D forms. They can be classified by the number of vertices, edges, and faces they have. They are classified into many categories, each characterized by their own features. It is essential for understanding the volume, or space inside the shape, and surface area, or whole exterior surface, of these shapes in geometry and in real-world applications in disciplines like architecture and engineering.