4 Basic types of welding positions

The different orientations in which welding can be done are referred to as welding positions. By taking into account elements like gravity, accessibility, and the flow of molten metal, these positions are designed to ensure that welders can join materials effectively in a variety of arrangements. For welders to produce high-quality welds across a variety of applications, familiarity with welding positions is crucial.

Welding positions are the postures that a welder must utilize toward the workpiece to be welded. Due to gravity, welding positions affect the flow of the molten electrode to the workpiece. For a good weld to be achieved, a welder is expected to know various welding positions that will suit a specific operation.

Welding is a very broad topic, as there are several welding types out there. With an outlook on welding positions, you are expected to already have knowledge of welding operations. Well, today I will be discussing the four basic types of welding positions that are expected to be carried out at a certain position by a welder.

Welding Positions

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The Four Welding positions

The most common type of welding performed in the fabrication world is fillet and groove welding. These two welds can be obtained with the four basic welding positions, which include flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead. Take your time to understand the explanation!

Flat positions (1G and 1F)

A flat welding position is very easy to perform, and it can be learned within a short period of time. It is also known as the down-hand position, as it involves welding on the top side of the joint. The molten metal is drawn down into the joint, making it a fast and easy welding process. Number 1 is used to represent flat welding, indicating the first welding positions. G and F represent groove and fillet welding.

Horizontal position (2G and 2F)

The horizontal welding position is a little more difficult when compared to the flat welding position. A welder is expected to practice and perfect the position before performing it.

2G, which is a groove weld, is done by placing the weld axis in a horizontal plane, or approximately horizontal. The face of the joint should be in an approximately vertical plane. In the fillet welding position, which is 2G, the welding is done on the upper side of the surfaces, which is approximately horizontal and lies against an approximately vertical surface. The welding torch is usually held at a 45-degree angle.

Fillet welding positions

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Vertical position (3F and 3G)

In the vertical welding position, the plate and the weld lie vertically or almost vertically. The force of gravity pushes the molten metal downward and tends to pile up. In other words, either an upward or downhill vertical position can be implied.

In the upward vertical position, the flame is positioned upward and held at a 45-degree angle to the plate. This will be achieved if the welder uses the metal from the lower parts of the workpiece to weld against the force of gravity. Whilst downhill, the metal from the upper parts and the electric arc’s kinetic force are used. The 3F and 3G are the vertical fillets and vertical groove positions.

Groove welding positions

Overhead position

This is the fourth welding position. It is performed from the underside of the joint area. The overhead welding position is the most difficult. In this position, the metal deposited at the joint tends to sag on the plate, resulting in a bead with a higher crown. This can be prevented by applying a small molten puddle to the joint. And if the weld puddle is too large, the flame should take off for a few moments to cool the molten metal.

Watch the video below to learn how these welding positions are performed:


The many positions in which welding can be carried out are known as welding positions. Flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead positions are the four most common types of welding positions. The most typical configuration has the welding surface horizontal and is called flat. Gravity’s effects are negligible, which makes it simpler to manage the weld pool. In the horizontal position, welding is done along a horizontal joint, while the molten metal is affected by gravity.

Gravity has a considerable impact on the weld pool in the vertical position, which necessitates welding in an upright position. The hardest position for welders to operate in is the overhead because they have to fight gravity. Every welding position has its own particular difficulties and needs a particular set of skills to provide the best outcomes. To adapt to various project needs and produce high-quality welds, welders must master these positions. Welders can assure the integrity and quality of their work across a wide range of applications by being aware of the requirements and features of each welding position.

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