Civil Engineering

Everything you need to know about walls

Walls supported the weight of floors and roofs in traditional masonry construction, but modern steel and reinforced concrete frames, as well as heavy timber and other skeletal structures, only need exterior walls for shelter and occasionally do away with them on the ground floor to allow for easier access.

The Latin word murus refers to a defensive stone wall, but the Latin word vallum refers to “…an earthen wall or rampart equipped with palisades, a row or line of stakes, a wall, a rampart, fortification…” English employs the same phrase to refer to a room’s internal walls and exterior walls, but this usage is not widespread. There are several languages that make this distinction. This contrast can be somewhat recognized in Spanish between Pared and muro and in German between Wand and Mauer. Well, in this article we’ll be discussing the answers to the questions related to walls.

interior and exterior walls

  • What is the definition of a wall?
  • What are the types of walls?
  • What are walls made of?
  • How to construct a wall?
  • What are the tools needed for constructing a wall?
  • What are the benefits of walls?

So, let’s begin!


What is the definition of a wall?

A wall is a structural component that divides a room into two rooms while also offering safety and shelter. It is also a building or surface that delimits space, supports weight, offers safety, shelter, or soundproofing, or is purely aesthetic. A wall is weakened by doors and windows because the forces acting above them are diverted to the portions on either side, which must be strengthened according to the width of the opening.

The number of openings that can be employed is determined by the wall’s stresses and masonry strength. In multistorey buildings, windows typically need to be stacked one on top of the other to leave uninterrupted vertical wall masses that can carry loads to the ground.

Wall placement is influenced by the kind of support provided by the floors and roofs. The typical beam supports’ maximum length determines the separation between bearing walls, and they must be joined to walls at both ends. Except for the dome, all types of floors and roofs can be supported most readily by straight, parallel walls.

In general, there are two sorts of walls: outside walls and inner walls. The house’s outer walls provide an enclosure for protection and the interior walls aid in dividing the enclosure into the necessary number of rooms. Partition walls or interior walls are other names for inner walls, and exterior walls are another name for outside walls.

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What are the types of walls?

The followings show the types of walls;

Load Bearing Walls

Load Bearing Walls

  • An element of a structure is a load-bearing wall. From the top and upper levels all the way down to the foundation, it supports the weight of the home. It supports structural elements such as walls, slabs, and beams (sturdy wood or metal components) on floors above. A load-bearing wall is one that lies right above the beam. It’s made to support the vertical load. Another way to say this is that a wall is more likely to be a load-bearing wall if there are no other walls, posts, or other supports directly above it. The weight of load-bearing walls is also their own.
  • Usually, this wall runs along the top of each floor. Walls that support loads may be utilized either inside or outside. This type of wall will frequently be parallel to the ridge or floor joists. The best material to support these loads is concrete. The concrete base is immediately drilled through the beams. Internal load-bearing walls typically follow the ridge’s direction.
  • Load-bearing walls, whether on the inside or outside, are those that support the weight of the complete building, including the self-weight of structural components. The wall’s load-bearing form is constructed on a strip footing.

Types of loads bearing walls

  • Precast Concrete Wall
  • Retaining Wall
  • Masonry Wall
  • Pre-panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls
  • Engineering Brick Wall
  • Stone Wall

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Cavity Walls

Cavity Walls

  • Two different wythes make up the cavity wall. The wythes are constructed from stone. The terms “internal leaf” and “external leaf” refer to the two barriers. A hollow wall is another name for this structure. On the foundation, they lighten their weights. They function similarly to sound insulation.
  • Because the area is filled with air and limits heat transmission, cavity walls provide higher thermal insulation than any other type of solid wall. Their rate of heat transfer is half that of a solid wall. Economically, it is more affordable than other solid walls. It can withstand flames. Cavity walls aid in noise isolation.
  • They lower their weights onto the base. They function similarly to soundproofing. A hollow wall offers greater thermal insulation than a solid wall since the area is airtight and prevents heat transfer.
  • Compared to solid walls, they flow heat at a rate that is 50% higher. Economically speaking, it is less expensive than other solid walls. It has fire resistance. Through the hollow wall, noise is filtered.
  • Compared to solid walls, they flow heat at a rate that is 50% higher. Economically speaking, it is less expensive than other solid walls. It has fire resistance. Through the hollow wall, noise is filtered.

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Non-Load Bearing Walls

Non-Load Bearing Walls

  • A wall is considered non-load bearing if it just supports itself and does not assist the structure in standing. It cannot support the above floor and roof loads. It is a framed building. They usually serve as interior partitions that separate the building’s rooms. They have lightweight construction.
  • Any non-load-bearing walls can be taken down without jeopardizing the building’s security. The joists and rafters can be used to identify non-load-bearing walls. They are not in charge of providing the property with gravitational support. It is economical. “Curtain wall” is the name given to this structure.

Types of non-loads bearing walls

the followings are the types of non-bearing walls:

  • Hollow Concrete Block
  • Facade Bricks
  • Hollow Bricks
  • Brick Walls

Read more: Understanding building construction

Retaining Wall

Retaining Wall

  • The soil can be confined to a slope that would not typically keep it stable on a steep or vertical slope thanks to retaining walls, which operate as a supporting feature. The primary objective of building a retaining wall at a certain location depends on the requirements; it is to hold soil behind it.
  • The lateral force against such a wall can be resisted using a variety of techniques. Gravity walls, which are made of substantial concrete and kept from toppling over by nothing more complicated than gravity, are the most fundamental kind of reinforced retaining walls.
  • The asymmetrical load is balanced by tie beams in the cantilever footings of the cantilever retaining wall. A cantilever wall with counterforts, or buttresses, affixed to the interior face of the wall to further resist lateral thrust, is known as a counterfort retaining wall. Treated wood, poured concrete, stone, brick, concrete block systems, and other materials are frequently used to construct retaining walls.

Types of retaining wall

The following are the types of retaining walls;

  • Gravity retaining wall.
  • Reinforced Concrete retaining wall.
  • Brick masonry retaining wall.
  • Anchored earth wall.
  • Stone-made Retaining wall.

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Partition Walls

Partition Walls

  • It is employed to divide spaces from buildings. It might be made of stone or brick and be sturdy. It is a framed building. The floor, walls, and ceiling are all fastened to the partition wall. It is sturdy enough to support its own weight. It deflects blows. It can support wall fittings because it is sturdy and robust. The partition wall is both fire-resistant and effective as a sound barrier.
  • A wooden framework that is supported by the side walls or the floor makes up a timber partition. When properly installed, metal lath and plaster create a reinforced partition wall. Fiber cement backer board partition walls are frequently used as the foundation for tiling in bathrooms, kitchens, and other moist spaces. Galvanized sheets fastened to wooden or steel elements are typically used in temporary construction projects. Concrete can also be used to build plain or reinforced partition walls, including pre-cast concrete blocks.
  • Internal wall partitions, commonly referred to as office partitioning, are typically constructed out of glass or plasterboard (drywall). Low-iron glass also referred to as optic-white glass, boosts light and solar heat transfer, making toughened glass a popular choice.
  • Beads and tracks that are either fastened to the ground or hanging from the ceiling are used to build wall divisions. The panels are fastened after being put into the tracker. Some wall divider variations list their level of acoustic and fire performance.

Read more: Everything you need to know about modular construction

Brick Masonry Wall

Brick Masonry Wall

  • Due to the versatility and durability of brick, brick masonry walls have been used in building construction for thousands of years with very slight modifications.
  • Its construction included the use of clay bricks that had been burned, sand-lime bricks (calcium silicate bricks), concrete bricks, fly ash clay bricks, and firebrick. Masonry is used to bind the bricks of the wall together.
  • The brick wall could be 20 cm or 10 cm thick. The inside walls are 10 cm thick, while the external walls are 20 cm thick.

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Core Wall

Core Wall

  • This wall is constructed starting at the building’s foundation and extends to the same height as the building. This wall functions as a column and a shear wall.
  • In terms of resisting lateral external pressures like wind, earthquakes, and other natural calamities, it provides the same function as the shear wall. It is carefully constructed in the building’s center to withstand the torsion effect.
  • Anything that connects the building’s many rooms or houses components like wiring and pipes or mechanical equipment is referred to as the building’s core.

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Shear Walls

Shear Walls

  • A framed wall, that is. It has lateral force resistance built into it. This lateral force acts on the ground foundation through exterior walls, floors, and roofs. Shear walls should always be used, especially in large, tall structures. Typically, masonry or concrete is used in its construction. It features a strong structural design that can withstand earthquakes. It gives the direction rigidity.
  • Shear walls make building and deployment simple. It is symmetrically placed to lessen the negative effects of a twist. The shear wall doesn’t show any signs of instability.
  • Shear walls are easy to build and use; they are properly positioned to reduce the damaging twisting effects. The shear wall has no problems with stability.

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Other types of walls include!

  • Faced Walls
  • Veneered Walls
  • Panel Walls

What are walls made of?

Whether a wall is framed or solid, the material used to construct it is primarily dictated by this basic classification.

  • Through columns, studs, or posts, framed walls carry structural loads to the base. They also comprise insulation and finishing components or surfaces, like cladding panels, in addition to the structural component.
  • A single skin of solid material, such as masonry, concrete, brick, timber, rammed earth, straw bales, etc. is used to build solid walls. There is no space between the inner and exterior of them.
  • A hollow wall is not framed; instead, it is made of two layers of masonry, the inner layer typically being blockwork, with the exterior layer being either brick, block, or stone. To stop moisture from penetrating and make room for the installation of thermal insulation, these skins (or leaves) are divided by a cavity.
  • Brick or blockwork internal and external walls are connected by wall ties that span the cavity.
  • There are numerous techniques to build internal or partition walls. They are frequently made of brick or blockwork, alternatively, they are framed and occasionally called stud walls. The frameworks for stud walls can be made of wood, steel, or aluminum, while the boarding can be made of plasterboard, wood, metal, or fiberboard. Also, they might be glazed.
  • Exterior walls can be completed using a variety of products and methods. Cladding describes parts that are affixed to a building’s main framework to provide external surfaces that are not structural.

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How to construct a wall?

first, the equipment required for constructing a wall are;

  • Brick trowel
  • Old board
  • Tape measure
  • Spirit level
  • Brick/string line
  • Shovel
  • Club hammer
  • Bolster
  • Stiff brush

The followings are the procedures for constructing a wall;

method 1: Start your brick wall at the corners

  • First, place bricks where the pillars start at each end of your wall. After any necessary foundations have been laid, this should be done. Create a straight guideline between the two outer bricks at brick height using your string line.

method 2: Mix the mortar

  • After that, place an old board on top of five shovels of sand and one of cement. To achieve consistent color, turn the shovel. Create a hollow in the center, add the water, and stir. Repeat until the texture is wet but not too loose and smooth and creamy.

method 3: Lay the first course of bedding mortar

  • A 1-2 cm mortar bed should be laid along the string line. Lay the first brick, starting at one end, and tap it softly to “bed in.” Apply mortar to one end of the following brick to “butter up” it, then about it to the first. Using the string line as a guide, repeat.

method 4: Create the brick pillars

  • Place a brick against the wall’s end where you want your pillars to begin, facing the wrong way. Every subsequent course of pillar brick that you place as you erect the wall must be laid in the opposite direction.

method 5: Cutting bricks

  • You must set half-bricks at specific courses when creating pillars. Place the brick on its side, find the bolster at the split point, and firmly pound the head of the bolster with a club hammer to form a cut. The first time it should separate neatly.

method 6: Keep the pillars one course ahead

  • On the pillars, you should always build at least one course higher than the rest of the wall. As you build, raise the string line and bed it into the mortar of the pillars. Each brick’s end should be above the center of the one below it in a stretcher bond.

method 7: Make sure you’re sticking to 10mm mortar joints

  • Mortar joints that are horizontal and vertical should be 10mm thick. The distance between the top of each brick and the top of the one below it, when using regular bricks, should be 75mm. It may be a good idea to “joint up” (step 10) as you go if your bricks absorb moisture quickly.

method 8: Add a coping stone

  • Mortar joints that are horizontal and vertical should be 10mm thick. The distance between the top of each brick and the top of the one below it, when using regular bricks, should be 75mm. It may be a good idea to “joint up” (step 10) as you go if your bricks absorb moisture quickly.

method 9: Decorative brick Soldier course

  • An appealing alternative for the top of a garden wall is to add a “soldier course.” Lay your bricks along the entire length after turning them vertically. To maintain a uniform finish, use a second, higher string line.

method 10: How to finish the mortar beds

  • Use a brick jointer’s rounded edge to scrape mortar into the joints to complete the beds. It is simpler to remove any excess mortar if you start with the horizontal lines and move on to the vertical ones after.

method 11: Clean up

  • Last but not least, gently brush the completed wall and sweep away any mortar that has spilled onto the floor before it hardens. Water can be used to remove cement off the floor, but stay clear of your freshly constructed wall while doing so!

What are the tools needed for constructing a wall?

Below is the equipment needed for constructing a wall:

Brick trowel

  • The tool often has a wooden handle that is connected to the blade by a vertical metal arm, as well as a flat, pointed steel blade. The brick trowel is most frequently used to spread materials; although, other tools are more effective at this work. It can also be used to pack materials between bricks and, in some situations, to shatter bricks into smaller pieces.

Old board

  • Old Board refers to the Corporation’s board of directors before the Reorganization was finished. The officers of the Corporation prior to the Reorganization’s conclusion are referred to as “Old Executives.

Tape measure

  • One of the most crucial tools for building a wall is a tape measure. Purchase a tape measure with feet and inches on it. The typical kind has a 25–30-foot capacity.

Spirit level

  • A level, sometimes known as a spirit level, bubble level, or just a level, is a tool used to determine whether a surface is horizontal or vertical. (plumb). Carpenters, stonemasons, bricklayers, other building trades workers, surveyors, millwrights, and other metalworkers may utilize various types of spirit levels, as well as in some photographic or video graphics work.

Brick/string line

  • A brick line, often called a “mason’s line,” “builder’s line,” or “brick twine,” is a long, stiff piece of thread that is frequently brightly colored. A typical tool for bricklayers is a brick line.


  • A shovel is a tool for digging and moving loose, granular materials from one place to another, such as soil, gravel, grain, or snow. A spade is a tool for edging flower beds or lawns, slicing and lifting sod, and digging holes or trenches with a straight edge.

Club hammer

  • Building a wall requires the use of a hammer; typically, a 20-oz. hammer is suitable. The hammer is slightly longer than a typical claw hammer, which is roughly 12 inches long and is between 16 and 20 inches long. You can drive nails with the claw hammer with one or two strokes as opposed to several with a longer length and weight.


  • Usually, they are added to the front or rear of a bed as a decorative element. They may also have more practical uses. Bolsters can be positioned between your legs during bedtime to comfortably align your body and support your head, shoulders, back, and hips. a wonderful marriage of form and function!

Stiff brush

  • Hard-to-move or dried-in dirt can be removed with the help of stiff bristles. As a result of the angled bristles’ flicking motion, debris from the carpet pile is released right into the airflow. A big difference for a small size.


  • The last thing you need is a chalk line to draw layout lines on your wall. The layout lines, which are fastened to the ground, serve as a straight point of reference for your walls. Additionally, you’ll indicate your wall sheathing with the line. Following the mark formed by the chalk line, cut your material after drawing it onto the sheathing.

What are the benefits of walls?

  • Divide the space into a number of rooms.
  • Protect the inmate’s sight and sound privacy.
  • Partition walls are lightweight and less expensive to build.
  • Take up less space
  • They are simple to build in any position.
  • Provide sufficient sight and sound privacy in the rooms.
  • made of lightweight, soundproof, homogenous, homogeneous, long-lasting, and sound-insulating materials.
  • Construction of partition walls is straightforward, inexpensive, and consistent with the kind of building structure.
  • provide adequate protection from things like fire, heat, humidity, white ants, fungus, etc.
  • sufficiently rigid to withstand vibrations brought on by loads
  • The partition walls are sturdy enough to hold heavy fixtures and sanitary fittings.

Walls FAQs

How is the wall defined?

A building (made of brick or stone) designed to wall off or enclose a place. especially: a side of a building or room.: a wall-like structure.

What are the 2 types of walls?

In general, there are two sorts of walls: outside walls and inner walls. The house’s outer walls provide an enclosure for protection, while the inner walls aid in dividing that enclosure into the necessary number of rooms.

What are the three types of walls?

  • walls that support loads. The ability of walls to carry weight, or act as a load-bearing surface, is their most crucial feature.
  • sever walls. Instead of supporting vertical loads, shear walls are structural components that withstand wind and earthquake activity.
  • not-supporting walls.
  • many kinds of barriers.
  • Finished walls.

What is the technical definition of a wall?

Walls are structural components that are used to separate or enclose spaces as well as to define a room’s or a building’s perimeter.

What is the Oxford Definition of a wall?

A long, sturdy wall that surrounds, divides, or guards a plot of land that rises straight up from the ground and is built of stone, brick, or concrete. to create a wall.

What are the characteristics of a wall?

  • Formality.
  • Ambiance.
  • Perceptible.
  • Proportion.
  • Space illusion.
  • light absorption.
  • Durability.
  • Acoustic.

What is the meaning of walls in architecture?

The main functions of walls in architecture are to define spaces and support roofs. Supporting a roof is a unique architectural and structural challenge, but delimitation may also be seen in human social behavior and in the shapes of the landscape.

What is the wall of a room?

One of a structure or room’s vertical sides is its wall.

What is the Definition of these four walls?

used when one is sharing a secret, they don’t want anyone else to know. Now, this is only acceptable within certain confines, but Janet informed me that she was expecting! Also see four, these, and wall.

that’s all for this article where the answers to the following questions about walls  were discussed;

  • What is the definition of a wall?
  • What are the types of walls?
  • What are walls made of?
  • How to construct a wall?
  • What are the tools needed for constructing a wall?
  • What are the benefits of walls?

I hope it was helpful, if so, kindly share. Thanks for reading