You’ll feel more at ease operating your automobile and taking it in for service and maintenance if you have a basic understanding of the components of its engine and how they function. Perhaps you’ve come to the realization that your car needs engine work but have paused to wonder what components an engine is made of and how they function. This information will help you take better care of your car, saving you time, money, and effort while also ensuring that it keeps its value.
The engine, which supplies power to drive the car, is a power generator, power plant, or motor. Your car’s engine is its heart. It is a sophisticated device designed to transform the heat from burning gas into the force that rotates the vehicle’s wheels. It is made up of two basic components: the cylinder head, which can be removed, and the lower, heavier cylinder block, which serves as a housing for the engine’s major moving parts.
The air and fuel mixture’s explosive force propels the pistons in the majority of automotive engines. A crankshaft to which they are connected is turned by the pistons. The crankshaft’s rotation causes the wheels of the car to move. Another type of engine, often referred to as a rotary valve, rotating combustion engine, or Wankel engine is used to power some automobiles. Additionally, the rotary valve engine sucks in a fuel and air mixture that is compressed and burned.
Well, in this article, I’ll be discussing the various parts of a car engine and their functions.
- 1 Basic parts of a car engine
- 1.1 Engine block
- 1.2 Piston
- 1.3 Cylinder Head
- 1.4 Crank Shaft
- 1.5 Camshaft
- 1.6 Timing belt
- 1.7 Join our Newsletter
- 1.8 Engine Valves
- 1.9 Oil Pan
- 1.10 Combustion chamber
- 1.11 Intake manifold
- 1.12 Exhaust manifold
- 1.13 Intake and Exhaust valves
- 1.14 Spark Plugs
- 1.15 Connecting Rod
- 1.16 Piston Ring
- 1.17 Gudgeon pin
- 1.18 Cam
- 1.19 Flywheels
- 1.20 Head gasket
- 1.21 Cylinder Liner
- 1.22 Crank Case
- 1.23 Distributor
- 1.24 Distributor o ring
- 1.25 Cylinder headcover
- 1.26 Rubber grommet
- 1.27 Camshaft pulley
- 1.28 Oil filter
- 1.29 Water pump
- 1.30 Timing belt drive pulley
- 1.31 Oil pan drain bolt
- 2 FAQs
Basic parts of a car engine
There are many parts that make up an engine, but we’ve gathered a list of the most crucial automotive engine parts and what they do to drive your car. To find where they are located on your engine, consult the diagram. The followings are the basic parts of a car engine:
- Engine block
- Cylinder Head
- Crank Shaft
- Timing belt
- Engine Valves
- Oil Pan
- Combustion chamber
- Intake manifold
- Exhaust manifold
- Intake and Exhaust valves
- Spark Plugs
- Connecting Rod
- Piston Ring
- Gudgeon pin
- Head gasket
- Cylinder Liner
- Crank Case
- Distributor o ring
- Cylinder headcover
- Rubber grommet
- Camshaft pulley
- Oil filter
- Water pump
The vital part of an engine is the engine block. It has several holes to contain the cylinders and provide water and oil flow paths to cool and lubricate the engine. It is frequently made of aluminum or iron. Water flow pathways are wider than oil flow paths.
Depending on the vehicle, the engine block also houses the pistons, crankshaft, camshaft, and four to twelve cylinders arranged in a line, sometimes known as an inline, flat, or V-shaped configuration. Practically every component of the motor is attached to it. The magic takes place inside the block, including combustion.
are a cylinder-shaped device with a flat top. The piston’s job is to transmit the power generated by combustion to the crankshaft so that the car can move. Each time the crankshaft rotates, pistons move twice up and down inside the cylinder. Engines with 1250 RPM piston rotation will go up and down 2500 times per minute. Piston rings, which serve to create compression and lessen friction from the constant rubbing of the cylinder, are located inside the piston.
Read more: Understanding automobile piston
through the cylinder bolts, and the head gasket seals it off from the engine. The valve springs, valves, lifters, pushrods, rockers, and camshafts are just a few of the components in the cylinder head that govern the channels that let intake airflow into the cylinders during the intake stroke. Additionally, there are exhaust channels for removing exhaust gases during the exhaust stroke.
Read more: Automobile cylinder block
The crankshaft is situated inside the crankshaft journals at the lowest portion of the engine block (an area of the shaft that rests on the bearings). The connecting rod connects this expertly crafted and balanced device to the pistons. At engine speed, the crankshaft converts the piston’s up-and-down action into a reciprocal motion, much like a jack-in-the-box.
Read more: Understanding crankshaft
The camshaft may be found in the engine block or the cylinder heads, depending on the vehicle. They are located in the cylinder heads of many modern vehicles and go by the names Dual Overhead Camshaft (DOHC) or Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC). They are supported by a series of bearings that are oil-lubricated for longevity.
The camshaft’s job is to convert the crankshaft’s rotating motion into an up-and-down motion that controls the movement of the lifters, pushrods, rockers, and valves. It also controls the timing of valve opening and shutting.
Read more: Understanding camshaft
An engine’s timing belt, timing chain, or cambelt synchronizes the rotation of the crankshaft and camshaft so that the valves open and close at the appropriate times throughout the intake and exhaust strokes of each cylinder.
The timing belt or chain in an interference engine is essential for avoiding piston-valve contact. Typically, a timing belt is a drive belt having teeth on the interior surface. A roller chain is a timing chain. The camshaft and crankshaft pulleys are gripped by gears on a belt composed of sturdy rubber. Similar to a bike chain, the chain has teeth that it uses to wrap around pulleys.
Read more: Understanding timing belt
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Engine valves are mechanical devices used in engines to control the flow of fuel, air, and exhaust gases in the cylinder head or combustion chambers while the engine is running. The valves open so that gases can flow, and then they close under the force of the spring. This is how they work. The cam pushes the valves down into the cylinder against the spring. The valve is sealed shut with the help of the pressure inside the combustion chamber.
Read more: Understanding an automobile valvetrain
Although it is a small, essential component of your engine’s lubricating system, the oil pan. To keep the components of your engine lubricated, oil is pumped through the engine. It lessens friction, allowing for easy operation. Friction alone would quickly render your engine unusable without oil. It’s critical that the oil doesn’t leak out since the oil pan keeps that oil confined in the lubricating system. There is a gasket between the oil pan and the portion of the engine it attaches to since it is a metal part attached to another metal element.
Read more: Understanding oil pan/sump
The region of the cylinder where the fuel/air mixture ignites is known as a combustion chamber. The fuel/air combination is compressed by the piston and ignited when it comes into contact with the spark plug, pushing the mixture out of the combustion chamber as energy. The Injector Nozzle, Piston, Spark Plug, Combustion Chamber, and other significant internal combustion engine components are all housed in the Cylinder.
The part of the engine that divides the airflow between the cylinders of an automobile is called the intake manifold. The throttle valve (also known as the throttle body) and other parts are frequently housed in an intake manifold.
An intake manifold can be composed of a number of distinct sections or pieces in some V6 and V8 engines. The intake air passes via the air filter, intake boot (snorkel), throttle body, intake manifold plenum, runners, and cylinders before entering the engine. By altering the airflow, the throttle valve (or body) regulates the engine rpm.
The exhaust manifold, which collects engine exhaust gas from several cylinders and sends it to the exhaust pipe, is often straightforward cast iron or stainless-steel unit. It’s linked to the exhaust valves. Its design is identical to that of the inlet manifold. The exhaust manifold serves the same purpose in diesel and gasoline engines, transporting exhaust gas in either case.
Intake and Exhaust valves
The charge (or air) entering the engine for burning and the exhaust gases coming out of the cylinder are controlled and regulated by inlet and exhaust valves, respectively. They can be found on the cylinder walls or the cylinder heads. They frequently have heads that resemble mushrooms.
For petrol engines, the entrance valve is where the air and fuel mixture enters. However, only air enters through the intake valve of diesel engines. In both situations, the exhaust valve is intended to release exhaust gases. Exhaust valves are attached to the exhaust manifold, and intake valves to the intake manifold. The topic of intake and exhaust manifolds has already been covered.
In order to ignite the compressed fuel/air combination by an electric spark and maintain engine combustion pressure, a spark plug is a component that transfers electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine. A ceramic insulator separates the core electrode from the metal threaded shell of a spark plug. A substantially insulated wire connects the central electrode—which may include a resistor—to the output terminal of a magneto or ignition coil.
Read more: Understanding Spark Plug
The component of a piston engine that joins the piston to the crankshaft is called a connecting rod. The connecting rod, in conjunction with the crank, transforms the piston’s reciprocating motion into the crankshaft’s rotation. The piston’s compressive and tensile forces must be transmitted by the connecting rod. It can pivot on the piston end and rotate on the shaft end in an internal combustion engine, which is where it is most frequently used. A mechanical connection used in water mills to change the spinning action of the water wheel into a reciprocating motion is the forerunner to the connecting rod.
Read more: Understanding connecting rod
In a steam engine or internal combustion engine, a piston outside diameter is joined to a metallic split ring called a piston ring. In engines, piston rings provide the following primary purposes:
- sealing the combustion chamber to reduce gas leakage into the crankcase.
- improving the piston-to-cylinder wall heat transfer.
- ensuring that there is the right amount of oil between the piston and the cylinder wall.
- limiting the amount of engine oil used by returning scraped oil to the sump.
- Cast iron or steel are typically used to make piston rings.
An integral part of an internal combustion engine is a gudgeon pin, often called a wrist pin. It establishes a link between the piston and the connecting rod. Additionally, connecting rods, wheels, or cranks can be employed with gudgeon pins.
They are a crucial component of camshafts. A camshaft is called a camshaft because of cams. To regulate the timing of the inlet and exhaust valves, the cams are positioned on the camshaft.
Read more: Understanding cam and follower
A mechanical device called flywheel stores rotational energy, a type of kinetic energy proportional to the product of its moment of inertia and the square of its rotational speed, using the principle of conservation of angular momentum. The engine produces torque, but it is not constant and fluctuates. If a vehicle keeps moving while this erratic power is there. In addition to making the rider extremely uncomfortable, it will also shorten the lifespan of its many components.
Therefore, a flywheel is employed to tackle the issue of fluctuating load. Typically, a flywheel is positioned on the camshaft. In a cycle of operation, it accumulates torque when it is high and releases it when it is low. As a torque buffer, it works.
Read more: Understanding the working of flywheel
In static applications, a gasket is a ring or sheet made of flexible material that is used to seal joints, flanges, and other mating surfaces to stop leakage. These several gasket varieties are frequently used in engines:
A head gasket serves as the seal between the cylinder head and engine block. Its main function is to seal the combustion gases inside the cylinders and prevent coolant or engine oil leaks. Head gasket leaks may result in overheating or poor engine performance.
Air, coolant, and oil leaks are stopped by the intake manifold gasket, which plugs the tiny opening between the manifold and the engine. The intake manifold gasket experiences significant wear and tear over time. It might eventually develop cracks or warps that make leaks possible.
Exhaust manifold gasket: To achieve the best seal, the exhaust manifold gasket is typically a multi-layered gasket made of metal and other materials. As the first gasket in the exhaust system, the exhaust manifold gasket is a crucial seal that needs to be checked if any issues develop.
Gasket for the water pump: The gasket for the water pump is a ring-shaped component composed of a tough material that can endure a range of temperatures. One of the major parts that move coolant throughout the engine is the water pump, therefore if it lacks a tight-fitting water pump gasket to keep it sealed, a leak could develop between it and the engine block.
Oil pan gasket: The oil pan gasket itself prevents oil from leaking as it travels from the pan to the engine and back. It does this by sealing the oil pan to the bottom of the engine block. However, no vehicle is invincible to oil leaks because oil is always flowing. A damaged oil pan gasket or the oil pan itself is frequently the source of oil leaks.
A cylinder liner is a thin metal component that is formed like a cylinder and is installed into an engine block to create a cylinder. It is one of the most crucial structural components that make up an engine’s interior.
The piston rings have a sliding surface formed by the cylinder liner, which acts as the inner wall of a cylinder and keeps the lubricant inside. The friction of the piston rings and piston skirt causes the cylinder liner to deteriorate over time. A thin oil coating that covers the cylinder walls and a layer of glaze that develops naturally as the engine is driven help to reduce this wear.
In a reciprocating internal combustion engine, the crankshaft is housed in a crankcase. The crankcase is incorporated into the engine block in the majority of modern engines.
The fuel/air mixture often passes through the crankcase before entering the cylinder in two-stroke engines, which typically employ a crankcase-compression arrangement (s). There is no oil sump in the crankcase in this engine’s design. The majority of the oil in four-stroke engines is stored inside the crankcase, which normally has an oil sump at the bottom.
A small amount of exhaust fumes frequently enters the crankcase as “blow-by” from the combustion chamber even though the fuel/air combination does not pass through the crankcase in a four-stroke engine. Although in certain engines the crankcase entirely encircles the main bearing journals, the crankcase frequently forms the bottom half of the main bearing journals (with the bearing caps comprising the other half).
Read more: Understanding Wet and Dry Oil Sump System
In internal combustion engines with spark ignition and mechanically timed ignition, a distributor is an enclosed rotating shaft. The primary duty of the distributor is to deliver secondary, or high voltage, current from the ignition coil to the spark plugs in the proper firing sequence and for the appropriate duration.
The distributor also includes a mechanical or inductive breaker switch to open and close the ignition coil’s primary circuit, with the exception of magneto systems and many contemporary computer-controlled engines that utilize crank angle/position sensors.
Read more: Understanding crankshaft position sensor
Distributor o ring
The distributor o-ring, which is frequently used by distributors to seal the distributor’s shaft with the engine, is an o-ring that is sized particularly to fit on the distributor’s shaft. To stop oil leaks at the base of the distributor, the distributor o-ring merely seals the distribution housing with the engine. O-ring failure can result in oil leaking from the distributor’s base, which can create other issues.
Read more: Understanding Camshaft Position Sensor
The upper actuation components of the engine control unit as well as the crankcase ventilation valves and all of its ancillary devices are often housed under the cylinder head cover of contemporary four-stroke engines. It shields the engine from debris and other external things as well.
Rubber grommets are utilized to seal holes, cover exposed surfaces, and lessen vibration. Sharp edges can be reduced and the engine valve can be protected when passing through a hole by inserting a rubber grommet. The valve will be protected from harm by the rubber grommet.
An engine’s timing system uses a cam pulley to regulate the camshaft’s rate of rotation, which in turn regulates the poppet valves that control air intake and exhaust in the cylinders. The timing chain and cam pulley work together to synchronize the crankshaft and camshaft rotation.
Waste is also eliminated by your car’s oil filter. To keep the engine in your automobile operating smoothly, it filters the motor oil to remove dangerous dirt, metal shavings, and debris. Without an oil filter, dangerous contaminants could enter your motor oil and ruin the engine. Your engine oil will stay cleaner and last longer if you filter out the trash.
Read more: Understanding car oil filter
The water pump in a car is a belt-driven device that receives power from the engine’s crankshaft. The water pump pulls the cooled fluid from the radiator through the pump’s center inlet and is constructed as a centrifuge. The fluid is then returned to the cooling system of the car after being circulated outward into the engine.
Read more: Understanding pump system
Timing belt drive pulley
An exclusive type of pulley system with teeth or pockets along the outside of the pulley body’s diameter is a timing belt pulley. Power is not transmitted through the pulley’s teeth or outside pockets. Instead, they activate the pulley belt to aid with timing and prevent misalignment.
Read more: Understanding flat belt pulley
Oil pan drain bolt
The oil drain plug is usually found on the oil pan at the bottom of the engine. During an oil change, it is utilized to drain the oil from your pan. In some instances, replacing the gasket is all that is required to fix an oil plug leak. A new oil drain stopper can be necessary if the bolt or oil pan has been cross-threaded. To assist you to avoid replacing the entire oil pan, a large oil drain plug may occasionally cut fresh threads.
Watch the video below to learn more about the various parts of a car engine:
What are the names of parts in an engine?
Cylinder Block, Cylinder Head, Crank Case, Oil Pan, Manifolds, Gasket, Cylinder Liner, Piston, A Piston Ring, Connecting Rod, Piston Pin, Crank Shaft, CamShaft, Flywheels, and Engine Valves are the parts of a car engine.
What are the main parts of the engine?
Main parts of Engine components
- Engine block and cylinders, first. The engine block, which is the foundation of the automobile’s engine, is frequently constructed of aluminum or iron.
- Pistons and the crankshaft. The movement of the piston initiates the rotational force that is applied to the wheels.
What are the 7 engine components?
The 7 Components of A Car Engine:
1. Cylinder Block. The cylinder block is the most important component and is the basis of a car engine.
2. Cylinder Head.
3. Piston or Torak.
4. Piston Rod or Connecting Rod.
6. Crankcase or Oil Pan.
How many components are in an engine?
There are 200 or so parts in a normal internal combustion engine that require maintenance and may need to be replaced if they become worn out. With an electric vehicle, there are just about 20 pieces.