The working of a shaping machine is quite easy as it requires fewer skills and can be easily learned. The machine is suitable for giving a workpiece surface desired shapes like horizontal, vertical, and flat. Some shaping tools are used to create curves as well as many other shapes on workpieces.
Today we’ll be looking deep into the working of different types of shaping machines such as the hydraulic and the reciprocating types. Their working mechanism will also be examined.
Working principle of a shaper machine:
The reciprocating types of shaping machine work are achieved by fixing the workpiece on the machine table. The cutting tool is fixed on the ram which moves forward and backward in a slider (reciprocating movement) form. The forward strokes toward the workpiece take the cut and the backward movement set the ram for another cutting action.
The working of the hydraulic shaper machine:
The mechanism of the hydraulic shaper machine work as a motor that drives a hydraulic pump at a constant speed to deliver oil at a constant pressure to the line. It has a regulating valve that accepts oil under pressure to each end of the piston alternately. Some oil at the opposite end of the piston returns back to the reservoir.
The piston which is connected to the ram is pushed by the oil. This ram is carrying the cutting tool as it moves toward the workpiece. The piston rod connects the piston and ram, helping the complete stroke (forward and backward movement) to be attained. The length of this ram stroke will depend upon the position of the trip dogs. It can be changed by unclamping and moving the trip dogs to the desired position.
The oil pumped to each end of the piston is altered by the trip dogs and pilot valves. The trip dog will trip the pilot valve which operates the regulating valve.
The following represents the step-by-step working of a shaping machine:
- First of all, the workpiece will be tightly placed on the table, setting the surface that requires the cut.
- The cutting tool at this point should already be in position. That is, fixed tightly to the ram.
- After the setting is done, the machine should start performing its reciprocating action
- In reciprocating action, the ram moves forward and backward to complete a stroke. It moves toward the workpiece and cut off the material by leaving the required shape.
- The forward stroke takes the cut and the backward stroke set the ram for another cutting
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