Electrical Electronic

Understanding an Air Conditioning System

To keep our environment to our desired temperature, the air conditioning system is the device that helps us achieve that. The system is so common that one can experience its effect anywhere we enter. It can be installed in our house, office, cars, even a modern religious centre now have it. in short, it can be used in both domestic and commercial environments

Air conditioning is often referred to as aircon, AC or A/C. it features a fan that distributes the conditioned air to the enclosed space. The enclosed space is often building and car.

modern air conditioning system

Today we’ll be looking at the definition, functions, components, diagram, classification, types, and working principle of an air conditioning system.

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What is an air conditioning system?

An air conditioning system is an electrical device that is purposely installed for the removal of heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space. It is a process that is commonly used to achieve a more comfortable environment, basically for humans and other animals.

An air conditioning system is also used to cool and dehumidify rooms that contain heat-producing electronic devices, such as computer servers, and power amplifiers. It is also used in space that contains delicate products like artwork.

Cooling is generally achieved in the air conditioning system through a refrigeration cycle, but sometimes evaporation or free cooling is employed. The system can also be made based on desiccants (chemicals that eliminate moisture from the air). Most AC system stores and rejects heat in pipes called subterranean.

Functions of the air conditioning system

Below are the major functions of an air conditioning system in modern houses:

  • The primary purpose of air conditioning is to create a room climate comfortable for humans.
  • Some special type of conditioning system is used to cool the temperature of electric devices.
  • It controls the humidity of a room as 30 to 65% is permitted while the temperature should be between 20 and 26 degrees Celsius.
  • Air conditioning system affects the room air to comfort people and their productivity is not impeded.
  • The condition of the air is characterized by temperature, pressure, and humidity. The air pressure is not changed.
  • Air conditioning systems can be for heating, dehumidifying, cooling, and humidifying.

Components of an air conditioner

Below are the components of the air conditioner used for commercial purposes:


The compressor is the engine of the system as it works with a fluid that easily transforms the gas into a liquid. Its primary function is to convert low-pressure gas into high-pressure gas, which has a high temperature. in its working, the gap regions between molecules get narrowed down with a produced energized gas. This energized gas which is also known as a refrigerant is released from the compressor and enters the condenser.

Condenser Coil:

The condenser coil contains a fan that cools the high-pressure gas and converts it into a liquid. The product obtained is used by the evaporator to do the work. The compressor and condenser are ones placed outside of the house.


The thermostat maintains the temperature of an air conditioning system as it regulates the heat energy inside and outside of it. depending on the design, a thermostat can be set manually or automatically.


Evaporators are air conditioning components found inside the house near the furnace. It’s connected to the condenser with an extremely thin pipe. The high-pressure gas is transformed into a low-pressure liquid of the air conditioner. The liquid is then converted to gas due to the decreasing pressure. The fluid or refrigerant is what takes away the heat from the and cools it off. The evaporator releases the fluid in the form of a gas in order to get compressed again by the compressor. All of these happen in a cyclic fashion.

Air Handler and Blowing Unit:

These air conditioner components work together to draw the air to the evaporator and distribute cool air over the room. A duct system facilitates the passage of airflow in the room.

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The complete diagram of an air conditioning system:

diagram of air conditioning system

components of air conditioning system

Classification of the air conditioning system

We classify the air conditioning system in order to distinguish one type from another. This provides a background for selecting the optimum air conditioning system depending on the building’s requirements. An air conditioner can be classified into three categories which include:

Classification based on major function:

  • Comfort air conditioning e.g. hotels, homes, offices, etc.
  • Commercial air conditioning e.g. malls, supermarkets, etc.
  • Industrial air-conditioning e.g. processing, laboratories, etc.

Classification based on the season in the year:

  • A summer air conditioner that controls all four atmospheric conditions for summer comfort.
  • Winter air conditioner is designed for comfort in the winter.
  • A year-round air conditioner that consists of heating and cooling tools with an automatic control that could serve in any weather condition in the year.

Classification based on equipment arrangement:

  • These types include a unitary system and a central system.


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Types of the air conditioning system

Below are the various types of air conditioning systems available in our modern world:

Central Air Conditioning:

The central conditioning is the most common type of cooling system. It’s preferably used in larger homes because of its efficient cooling. the conditioning system circulates cool air through the supply and returns ducts.

The supply ducts and registers are located on the wall or floors of the house supplying the air inside. Once the air becomes warm, it circulates back into the supply ducts and registers when it will be transferred back to the air conditioner.

Installing these types of air conditioning systems requires deep thinking, planning, and preparation. The sizing is crucial to the functionality of the system, installing a system that’s of the wrong size, even if efficient, the utility costs will be more than they should.

Ductless, Mini-Split Air Conditioner:

The ductless, mini-split air conditioning system is also common but it’s modified with new parts. Just like the central conditioning type, these systems have an indoor handling unit and an outdoor compressor/condenser.

These types of air conditioning systems are effective in cooling individual rooms because the system can have as many as four indoor handling units. The handling unit is connected to the outdoor unit. Also, each handling unit has its own thermostat, which allows each of them to work at a different temperature. A particular part can be cooled in the system.

Window Air Conditioner:

A window air conditioner is a compact unit, ideal for cooling one particular room. The system is also known as a “unitary unit”, it’s installed in the window of a room. In its working, warm air is sent out through the back of the conditioning system and blows cool air through the front part. It’s perfect for those who secure small spaces and won’t be perfect for larger homes as it doesn’t cool effectively in such a kind of environment.

Read more: List of best window air conditioners

Portable Air Conditioner:

These types of air conditioning systems are specified as next-generation window unit cooling systems. It takes air from the room and cools it then send it back into the room. It also vents warm air from outside, through an exhaust hose that’s installed in a window.

Just like the window air conditioning units, these types of systems are also designed to cool only one room. They’re affordable, versatile, and also easy to install. Its portability makes it even more ideal.

Geothermal Heating and Cooling:

Geothermal energy is sustainable, energy-efficient, and has a long lifespan. These cooling and heating process is possible because the ground temperature always remains 55 degrees. It does not change no matter how hot or cold the temperature is. Geothermal technology extracts heat from the ground and uses it inside the house. The system contains a geothermal coil (loops or wells) installed deep into the ground, it’s what cools and heats the house and then distributes it back into the ground.

Hybrid Air Conditioners:

Hybrid air conditioners are heat pump systems powered either by burning fossil fuels or electricity. Manufacturers intelligently choose a suitable source of energy in order to save money and energy.

The system works as it will normally do in the summer by pulling heat from the indoors and distribute it outdoors. It works reverse in the winter by pulling heat from the outside to discharge it into the house.

The hybrid pump system works with the second law of thermodynamics, which stated that heat gets transferred from a hot object to a cold object. So, when the refrigerant drops below the outside temperature, the heat obtained from the outside environment is transferred to the system heat pump’s coils and into the refrigerant. The extracted heat is what turns into warm, conditioned air for the room.

Working Principle

Let me assume you are familiar with the working of an air conditioning system because much has been revealed while listing components and explaining various types of air conditioners. Well, to keep things light and simple will be explaining further that in video content.

Watch the video to learn more about how an air conditioning system works:

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In conclusion, an air conditioner is a life-saving device widely use today. We have covered almost everything you need to know about an air conditioning system which includes its definition, functions, and working. we also examined its components, types, and classifications.

I hope you enjoyed the reading, if so, kindly comment, share, and recommend this site to other technical students. Thanks!

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