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Various methods of steel making

Types of Steelmaking Process

Steel making process is the manufacturing of steel from iron ore or scrap. Pig iron is well known as the basic block of all ferrous metals, produced from refined iron ore in a blast furnace with addition of charcoal, limestone and air. Steel can be obtained if pig iron is further refined and some amount of carbon is added. If this is done, the crystalline structure of the metal changes, steel is then obtained.

In this article, i have explained various methods of steel making process using pig iron.

Various methods of steel making

There are various methods of steel making, well three processes have been explained in this article.

As explained in previous article, steel is obtained from iron that loses some of it impurities like, silica, phosphorus and sulphur. These impurities are purposely removed because its causes serious weakness to the steel. The types are;

Open-hearth furnace process

This is a types of steel making process. In this production, iron ore, pig iron and limestone are poured through the top of the open-hearth furnace which is then heated for about 1,600°f (871°c). After the heating process, the ore and limestone forms a slag that is lighter than iron so it floats on the top surface. Impurities like carbon oxidized float out of the iron into the slag. After all these is achieved your carbon steel is produced.

Also check: The Blast Furnace and Blast Stove: Operation, Component and maintenance and Iron ore smelting Preparation and Iron Smelting

Bessemer process of Steel making:

The second process on how steel is produced from pig iron is bessemer process. This types of steel making process also involve the oxidation of impurities in the pig iron which is achieved by blow air through the molten iron in a bessemer converter, at this point, the heat of oxidation raises the temperature and keeps the iron molten.

Air plays an important role as it reacts with the molten pig iron and make the impurities to form oxides, carbon monoxide burns off and other impurities form slag.

Various methods of steel making

Basic oxygen furnace process

Basic oxygen furnace is another process of steel making. It manufacturing process is roughly 10times faster than open-hearth furnace. This steel making process is achieved when high-purity oxygen blows through the molten pig iron, lowering carbon, silicon, manganese and phosphorus levels. This sulphur and phosphorus level is reduce with the addition of chemical clearing agent called “fluxes.”

With an addition of alloy to the steel which help in creating different properties. For example, production of stainless steel, 10 to 30% of chromium will be added to the steel. It helps the steel to highly resist rust. And for production of chrome-moly steel, chromium and molybdenum will be added to the steel. It is known as a very strong and light steel.

And that is it for this article, various methods of steel making process. I hopefully believed you now have knowledge on how steel is produced. If you have any questions don’t hesitate to ask via our comment box and don’t forget to share. Thanks for reading

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